Introduction to Earth Science

Earth Science

Geology & Geography
48
Questions
10
True/False
20
Choices
18
Essay
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Questions

Q1
Free

What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?

Multiple Choice
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A) Physical geology is the study of fossils and sequences of rock strata; historical geology is the study of how rocks and minerals were used in the past.
B) Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing the geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.
C) Physical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and deposition in relation to plate movements in the geologic past; historical geology charts how and where the plates were moving in the past.
D) none of the above – physical geology and historical geology are essentially the same.
Answer:
B) Historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geologic events, utilizing the geologic time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and of how erosion shapes the land surface.
Q2
Free

The study of Earth's atmosphere is known as ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) astronomy
B) oceanography
C) meteorology
D) cosmology
Answer:
C) meteorology
Q3
Free

A ________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.

Multiple Choice
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A) hypothesis
B) generalization
C) law
D) theory
Answer:
D) theory
Q4

All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except for ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) the collection of scientific facts through observation and measurement
B) assumption of conclusions without prior experimentation or observation
C) the development of one or more working hypotheses or models to explain facts
D) development of observations and experiments to test the hypotheses
Answer:

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Q5

The ________ explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.

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A) protogalactic theory
B) nebular theory
C) extrastellar solar hypothesis
D) planetary compression theory
Answer:

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Q6

The ________ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.

Multiple Choice
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A) hydrosphere
B) atmosphere
C) biosphere
D) asthenosphere
Answer:

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Q7

In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?

Multiple Choice
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A) core, inner mantle, outer mantle, crust
B) inner core, outer core, mantle, crust
C) inner core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere
D) core, crust, mantle, hydrosphere
Answer:

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Q8

The composition of the Earth's inner core is thought to be ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) basalt
B) granite
C) peridotite
D) solid iron-nickel alloy
Answer:

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Q9

The asthenosphere is actually a part of the ________ of the Earth.

Multiple Choice
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A) outer core
B) crust
C) inner core
D) mantle
Answer:

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Q10

The ________ is thought to be a liquid, metallic region in the Earth's interior.

Multiple Choice
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A) inner core
B) lithosphere
C) mantle
D) outer core
Answer:

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Q11

The ________ is the thinnest layer of the Earth.

Multiple Choice
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A) crust
B) outer core
C) mantle
D) inner core
Answer:

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Q12

The ________ forms the relatively cool, brittle tectonic plates.

Multiple Choice
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A) asthenosphere
B) lithosphere
C) astrosphere
D) eosphere
Answer:

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Q13

Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth's lithospheric plates?

Multiple Choice
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A) gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon
B) electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core
C) export of heat from deep in the mantle to the top of the asthenosphere
D) swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core
Answer:

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Q14

Flat, expansive regions on a continent, composed of deformed crystalline (igneous intrusive and metamorphic) rock, are known as ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) cratons
B) shields
C) platforms
D) belts
Answer:

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Q15

Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) along the margins of continents
B) in the interior regions of continents
C) scattered throughout continents
D) along only the eastern margins of continents
Answer:

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Q16

The continental shelf is located ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) between the continental slope and continental rise
B) between the continental rise and the abyssal plains
C) seaward of the continental slope
D) landward of the continental slope
Answer:

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Q17

The most prominent feature on the ocean floor are the ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) deep-ocean trenches
B) oceanic ridges
C) seamounts
D) lava plateaus
Answer:

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Q18

A(n) ________ system is one in which energy moves freely in and out, but no matter enters or leaves the system.

Multiple Choice
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A) closed
B) open
C) feedback
D) equilibrated
Answer:

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Q19

Mechanisms that enhance or drive change are known as ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) negative feedback mechanisms
B) positive feedback mechanisms
C) closed feedback mechanisms
D) open feedback mechanisms
Answer:

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Q20

What is the source of the energy that powers the Earth system?

Multiple Choice
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A) the Sun
B) heat from Earth's interior
C) both A and B
D) none of the above
Answer:

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Q21

hypothesis theory fact observation

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Q22

hydrosphere biosphere atmosphere solid Earth

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Q23

protosun Oort cloud planetesimals meteorites

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Q24

crust mantle lithosphere core

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Q25

mountain belt shield continental interior stable platform

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Q26

abyssal plain seamount oceanic ridge continental crust

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Q27

Internally, the Earth consists of spherical shells with different compositions and densities.

True/False
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A) True.
B) False.
Answer:

Subscribe First.

Q28

The asthenosphere is a relatively cool and rigid shell that overlies the lithosphere.

True/False
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A) True.
B) False.
Answer:

Subscribe First.

Q29

The formation of the solar system from a huge cloud of gases and dispersed particles is known as the solar galactic hypothesis.

True/False
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A) True.
B) False.
Answer:

Subscribe First.

Q30

A scientific theory is a tentative or untested explanation that is proposed to explain scientific observations.

True/False
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A) True.
B) False.
Answer:

Subscribe First.

Q31

Oceans cover slightly less than half of the Earth's surface.

True/False
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A) True.
B) False.
Answer:

Subscribe First.

Q32

In an open system both energy and matter flow into and out of the system.

True/False
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A) True.
B) False.
Answer:

Subscribe First.

Q33

According to the nebular theory, all of the bodies in the universe evolved from a rotating cloud of gases and dust about five billion years ago.

True/False
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A) True.
B) False.
Answer:

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Q34

The lithosphere and asthenosphere are layers of Earth defined by their composition.

True/False
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A) True.
B) False.
Answer:

Subscribe First.

Q35

Shields and stable platforms are typically found in the interior regions of a continent.

True/False
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A) True.
B) False.
Answer:

Subscribe First.

Q36

The currently accepted age of Earth is approximately 4.5 million years.

True/False
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A) True.
B) False.
Answer:

Subscribe First.

Q37

List the two broad, traditional subject areas of geologic study.

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Q38

Hazardous Earth processes such as volcanoes, tsunami, floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes are all ________ processes.

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Q39

The ________ was developed by Earth scientists and divides the 4.6-billion-year history of Earth into many different units.

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Q40

In natural systems, mechanisms that drive or enhance change are called ________.

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Q41

The thin, outer layer of Earth, from 7 to 40 km in thickness, is called the ________.

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Q42

The ________ is the relatively rigid zone above the asthenosphere that includes the crust and upper mantle.

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Q43

The ________ is the solid, rocky shell between the crust and outer core.

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Q44

The convective flow of liquid, metallic iron in the ________ is thought to generate Earth's magnetic field.

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Q45

Moving from the shoreline towards the deep-ocean basin, the continental margin includes the ________.

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Q46

The ________ is the most prominent feature on the ocean floor.

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Q47

When a hypothesis has survived extensive scrutiny and when competing ones have been eliminated, a hypothesis may be elevated to the status of a ________.

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Q48

What is the relationship of the dense oceanic crust that is produced at a divergent plate boundary to the convergence or collision of an oceanic plate and a continental plate, such as the western margin of South America in the diagram below?

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