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What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?
The study of Earth's atmosphere is known as ________.
A ________ is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.
All of the following are possible steps of scientific investigation except for ________.
The ________ explains how our solar system probably formed from a giant cloud of gases and dispersed solid particles.
The ________ refers to the sum total of all life on Earth.
In correct order from the center outward, Earth includes which units?
The composition of the Earth's inner core is thought to be ________.
The asthenosphere is actually a part of the ________ of the Earth.
The ________ is thought to be a liquid, metallic region in the Earth's interior.
The ________ is the thinnest layer of the Earth.
The ________ forms the relatively cool, brittle tectonic plates.
Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth's lithospheric plates?
Flat, expansive regions on a continent, composed of deformed crystalline (igneous intrusive and metamorphic) rock, are known as ________.
Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ________.
The continental shelf is located ________.
The most prominent feature on the ocean floor are the ________.
A(n) ________ system is one in which energy moves freely in and out, but no matter enters or leaves the system.
Mechanisms that enhance or drive change are known as ________.
What is the source of the energy that powers the Earth system?
mountain belt shield continental interior stable platform
abyssal plain seamount oceanic ridge continental crust
Internally, the Earth consists of spherical shells with different compositions and densities.
The asthenosphere is a relatively cool and rigid shell that overlies the lithosphere.
The formation of the solar system from a huge cloud of gases and dispersed particles is known as the solar galactic hypothesis.
A scientific theory is a tentative or untested explanation that is proposed to explain scientific observations.
Oceans cover slightly less than half of the Earth's surface.
In an open system both energy and matter flow into and out of the system.
According to the nebular theory, all of the bodies in the universe evolved from a rotating cloud of gases and dust about five billion years ago.
The lithosphere and asthenosphere are layers of Earth defined by their composition.
Shields and stable platforms are typically found in the interior regions of a continent.
The currently accepted age of Earth is approximately 4.5 million years.
List the two broad, traditional subject areas of geologic study.
Hazardous Earth processes such as volcanoes, tsunami, floods, earthquakes, and hurricanes are all ________ processes.
The ________ was developed by Earth scientists and divides the 4.6-billion-year history of Earth into many different units.
In natural systems, mechanisms that drive or enhance change are called ________.
The thin, outer layer of Earth, from 7 to 40 km in thickness, is called the ________.
The ________ is the relatively rigid zone above the asthenosphere that includes the crust and upper mantle.
The ________ is the solid, rocky shell between the crust and outer core.
The convective flow of liquid, metallic iron in the ________ is thought to generate Earth's magnetic field.
Moving from the shoreline towards the deep-ocean basin, the continental margin includes the ________.
The ________ is the most prominent feature on the ocean floor.
When a hypothesis has survived extensive scrutiny and when competing ones have been eliminated, a hypothesis may be elevated to the status of a ________.