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Of the four major blood components, plasma:
Blood has four major components: (1) a fluid component called plasma, (2) circulating solutes such as ions, (3) serum proteins, and (4) cells. Plasma comprises about 55% of blood volume and is the transportation medium for important serum proteins such as albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, prothrombin, and plasminogen. The hematopoietic cells comprise the remaining 45% of blood volume.
Erythrocytes (RBCs) are flexible biconcave disks without nuclei whose primary component is an oxygen-carrying molecule called:
Erythrocytes (RBCs) are flexible biconcave disks without nuclei whose primary component is an oxygen-carrying molecule called hemoglobin. RBCs are generated from precursor stem cells under the influence of a growth factor called erythropoietin. Erythropoietin is secreted by the kidney in response to a perceived decrease in perfusion or tissue hypoxia. Reticulocytes are immature RBCs that may be released when there is a demand for RBCs that exceeds the number of available mature cells. The oxygen affinity for hemoglobin is modulated primarily by the concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and depends on the blood pH and body temperature.
Erythrocytes (RBCs) are generated from precursor stem cells under the influence of a growth factor called:
RBCs are generated from precursor stem cells under the influence of a growth factor called erythropoietin. Erythropoietin is secreted by the kidney in response to a perceived decrease in perfusion or tissue hypoxia. Reticulocytes are immature RBCs that may be released when there is a demand for RBCs that exceeds the number of available mature cells. The RBC transports hemoglobin, whose function is the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Hemoglobin binds with oxygen in the lungs and transports it to the tissues. The oxygen affinity for hemoglobin is modulated primarily by the concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and depends on the blood pH and body temperature.
The nurse is caring for a patient who has undergone a splenectomy, and notices that the patients platelet count has increased. The nurse realizes that the increase is due to:
The nurse examines the patients complete blood count with differential analysis and notices that the patients neutrophils are elevated, but the lymphocytes are lower than normal. The drop in lymphocyte count in the differential is most likely due to:
The nurse is caring for a patient receiving chemotherapeutic agents, and notices that the patients neutrophils count is low. The nurse realizes that:
When examining the patients laboratory values, the nurse notices an elevation in the eosinophil count. The nurse realizes that eosinophils become elevated:
Although monocytes may circulate for only 36 hours, they can survive for months or even years as tissue macrophages. Monocytes found in the liver are called:
Lymphocytes are made up of B cells and T cells. B cells:
The process by which the body actively produces cells and mediators that result in the destruction of the antigen is called:
The process in which antibody and complement proteins attach to the target cell and enhance the phagocytes ability to engulf the target cell is known as:
Two types of specific immune responses exist: humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity. These responses:
The ratio of helper T4 cell to suppressor T cells is normally 2:1. A lower than normal ratio may indicate acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This is because T4 cells:
The mechanism responsible for the rejection of transplanted tissue and the destruction of single malignant cells is known as immunosurveillance. The nurse understands that this is a function of:
With minor vessel injury, primary hemostasis is achieved:
In vivo, the primary activator of the coagulation cascade occurs via the:
Common to both the intrinsic and the extrinsic pathway is:
The nurse is caring for a patient with cirrhosis of the liver. The nurse notes fresh blood starting to ooze from the patients rectum and intravenous site. The nurse contacts the provider expecting an order for:
A patient with a history of pulmonary embolism is being worked up for a potential coagulopathy that increases the risk for clotting. The nurse understands that the provider may order a test for
21. The nurse understands that when clots breakdown in a patient with a hematological disorder, that which value will increase?
The patient is being seen for complaints of general malaise, fatigue, and shortness of breath. The patient states that he has felt this way since he had a cold 6 weeks earlier. The nurse should expect the provider to order:
A reduction in the number of circulating RBCs or hemoglobin, which leads to inadequate oxygenation of tissues, is known as:
The patient is admitted with complaints of chronic fatigue and shortness of breath. The nurse notices that the patient is tachycardic and has multiple bruises and petechiae on his body and arms. The patient also complains of frequent nosebleeds. The nurse should evaluate the patients ____________
The nurse is assessing a patient being admitted with complaints of fatigue and shortness of breath as well as abdominal tenderness. The nurse notes that the patient is jaundiced; the physical examination reports an enlarged liver The nurse suspects that the patient has
The patient is complaining of severe joint pain as well as fatigue and shortness of breath. The nurse notices that the patients joints are swollen and his legs are edematous. The nurse realizes that these are symptoms of:
The patient has yellow skin and low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The nurse should look for:
Critical to caring for the immunocompromised patient is the understanding that:
The nurse is evaluating the patients laboratory values and notes an IgG level of 240 mg/dL. The nurse realizes that this patient is a candidate for:
The patient is admitted for chemotherapy, but the nurse notices laboratory values indicating that the patient is immunosuppressed. The nurse should:
The nurse notes that the patients neutrophil count is less than 500 cells/microliter. The nurse realizes that this patient is:
The patient is admitted with neutropenia. The nurse should continually assess the patient for:
The patients white blood cell (WBC) level is 4000 cells/microliter. The differential shows a neutrophil count of 65% and a band level of 5%. The absolute neutrophil count is
The patient has a total white blood cell (WBC) count of 600 cells/microliter. The differential shows a normal neutrophil level of 70% with 5% bands. This patient:
Nursing care of patients with neutropenia is the same as for all immunocompromised patients. Desired patient outcomes related to medical and nursing interventions include absence of infection, negative cultures, and an absolute neutrophil count of :
The patient is diagnosed with lymphoma, but has a normal white blood cell (WBC) count. The nurse understands that this patient
The patient is admitted with multiple myeloma. The nurse assesses the patient and is aware that the symptom most unique to this disease is:
Cases of primary immunodeficiency are usually related to:
The patient comes to the hospital complaining of headache, fever, and sore throat for the past 2 weeks and is concerned that he might have acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The patients blood work shows the presence of HIV antibodies. The nurse should explain that:
When caring for a patient with HIV, the nurse should:
The nurse is assessing a patient being admitted for anemia. The nurse sees no overt signs of bleeding. The nurse understands that:
The nurse is caring for a patient diagnosed with anemia. This mornings hematocrit level is 24%. Platelet level is 200,000/microliter. The nurse can expect to:
The patient is admitted with anemia caused by blood loss and thrombocytopenia. His platelet count is 22,000/microliter. The patient is scheduled for a transfusion of RBCs and a transfusion of platelets. The nurse should:
The patient has a platelet count of 9,000/microliter. The nurse realizes that:
The patients platelet count is 35,000/microliter. The provider orders the administration of 10 units of single-donor platelets. After transfusion, the nurse can expect the patients platelet count to be:
The patient is admitted with anemia and active bleeding. The nurse suspects intravascular disseminated coagulation (DIC). Definitive diagnosis of DIC is made by evidence of:
[Multiple Response] Numbers of white blood cells (WBCs) are increased in circumstances of: (Select all that apply.)
invasion by pathogenic organisms.
[Multiple Response] Autoimmunity can result from: (Select all that apply.)
recognition of tissue as self.
injury to tissues.
[Multiple Response] Inflammation is initiated by cellular injury and: (Select all that apply.)
is necessary for tissue repair.
inhibits the process called chemotaxis.
is harmful when uncontrolled.
is less efficient when complement proteins are present.
occurs when mediators cause vasoconstriction.
[Multiple Response] Exudate formation at the inflammatory site functions to: (Select all that apply.)
attach to the target cell.
carry away toxins.
[Multiple Response] Causes of anemia include: (Select all that apply.)
impaired production of red blood cells.
increased destruction of red blood cells.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
[Multiple Response] When dealing with hematological malignancies, therapies that have significant management roles include: (Select all that apply.)
bone marrow transplantation.
[Multiple Response] Secondary immunodeficiency involves the loss of a previously functional immune defense system that can be caused by: (Select all that apply.)
a single gene defect.
[Multiple Response] The nurse is caring for an elderly patient who is being admitted for anemia of unknown cause. The patient has been on multiple medications at home for various ailments. In assessing the patients medication list, the nurse notes medications that may alter hemostasis, including: (Select all that apply.)
[Multiple Response] In caring for the patient who has a coagulopathy, the nurse should: (Select all that apply.)
assess fluids for occult blood.
observe for oozing and bleeding and remove clots that form.
limit invasive procedures.
take temperatures rectally to increase accuracy.
weigh dressings to assess blood loss.