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What happens in the lungs when the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax?
The respiratory mucosa is continuous through the: 1. upper and lower respiratory tracts. 2. nasal cavities and the sinuses. 3. nasopharynx and oropharynx. 4. middle ear cavity and auditory tube.
Which of the following activities does NOT require muscle contractions and energy?
The maximum volume of air a person can exhale after a maximum inspiration is termed the:
Which of the following applies to the blood in the pulmonary artery?
Which of the following causes bronchodilation?
The central chemoreceptors in the medulla are normally most sensitive to:
Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the blood because:
Carbon dioxide is primarily transported in the blood:
Which of the following would result from hyperventilation?
Which of the following values is always decreased with respiratory alkalosis (compensated or decompensated)?
What would be the most effective compensation for respiratory acidosis?
What is the acid-base status of a patient with the following values for arterial blood gases? serum bicarbonate 36.5 mmol/L (normal range: 22-28), PCO2 75 mm Hg (normal range: 35-45), serum pH 7.0
What does carbaminohemoglobin refer to?
Approximately what percentage of bound oxygen is released to the cells for metabolism during an erythrocytes journey through the circulatory system?
The production of yellowish-green, cloudy, thick sputum is often an indication of:
What does the term hemoptysis refer to?
Light bubbly or crackling breathing sounds associated with serous secretions are called:
Choose the correct information applying to laryngotracheobronchitis:
Signs and symptoms of acute sinusitis usually include:
What are early signs and symptoms of infectious rhinitis?
Why does the influenza virus cause recurrent infection in individuals?
What are typical signs and symptoms of epiglottitis?
What is the most common cause of viral pneumonia?
Which of the following describes lobar pneumonia?
How does severe hypoxia develop with pneumonia?
Rust-colored sputum in a patient with pneumonia usually indicates:
What is the cause of Legionnaires disease?
Select the statement related to tuberculosis:
How is primary tuberculosis identified?
When does active (secondary) infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis with tissue destruction occur?
Which of the following statements does NOT apply to M. tuberculosis?
Which of the following confirms the presence of active (reinfection) tuberculosis?
Areas in the United States that show higher rates than the national rate of TB are areas that have a high incidence of:
Cystic fibrosis is transmitted as a/an:
The basic pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis is centered on a/an:
Growth and development of a child with cystic fibrosis may be delayed because of:
Persistent thick mucus in the bronchioles of a child with cystic fibrosis may cause: 1. air trapping. 2. atelectasis. 3. repeated infections. 4. irreversible damage to lung tissue.
What is a common indicator of cystic fibrosis in the newborn?
What is an early sign of bronchogenic carcinoma?
Cigarette smoking predisposes to malignant neoplasms because smoking:
Why does hypercalcemia occur with bronchogenic carcinoma?
What is a sign indicating total obstruction of the airway by aspirated material?
Which of the following predisposes to postoperative aspiration?
What is the pathophysiology of an acute attack of extrinsic asthma?
During an acute asthma attack, how does respiratory obstruction occur? 1. Relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle 2. Edema of the mucosa 3. Increased secretion of thick, tenacious mucus 4. Contraction of elastic fibers
What cause the expanded anteroposterior (A-P) thoracic diameter (barrel chest) in patients with emphysema?
Which of the following is typical of progressive emphysema?
Destruction of alveolar walls and septae is a typical change in:
A group of common chronic respiratory disorders characterized by tissue degeneration and respiratory obstruction is called:
Which statement does NOT apply to emphysema?
What is the cause of chronic bronchitis?
Which of the following is typical of chronic bronchitis?
What are typical pathological changes with bronchiectasis?
Which of the following are significant signs of bronchiectasis?
Why does cor pulmonale develop with chronic pulmonary disease?
Restrictive lung disorders may be divided into two groups based on:
What is caused by frequent inhalation of irritating particles such as silica?
Pulmonary edema causes severe hypoxia because of:
Which of the following is NOT a cause of pulmonary edema?
Which of the following is a common source of a pulmonary embolus?
What is a large-sized pulmonary embolus likely to cause?
Which manifestation(s) of atelectasis is/are associated with airway obstruction?
How does total obstruction of the airway lead to atelectasis?
How does a large pleural effusion lead to atelectasis?
With a flail chest injury, events during inspiration include which of the following?
How is cardiac output reduced with a flail chest injury?
Which of the following is a manifestation of a simple closed pneumothorax?
Which of the following is an effect of a large open pneumothorax (sucking wound)?
With a tension pneumothorax, which factors contribute to severe hypoxia?
Which of the following statements describe the pathophysiology of adult respiratory distress syndrome? 1. Damage leading to increased permeability of the alveolar capillary membranes 2. Decreased surface tension in the alveoli 3. Excessive fluid and protein interstitially and in the alveoli 4. Multiple diffuse hemorrhages in the lungs
Infant respiratory distress syndrome results from:
Obstruction in the upper airway is usually indicated by:
Which of the following does NOT apply to carbon dioxide?
Whenever PO2 levels decrease below normal, PCO2 levels:
Laryngotracheobronchitis is typically manifested by:
Lobar pneumonia is usually caused by:
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by a/an:
SARS typically begins as a flulike syndrome followed, after a few days, by:
In addition to effects on the lungs and pancreas, cystic fibrosis results in:
Which of the following is a significant early sign of bronchogenic carcinoma in a smoker?
Which of the following is likely to cause pneumothorax or hemothorax in a patient with bronchogenic carcinoma?
Which of the following would confirm a diagnosis of primary tuberculosis?
Which of the following drugs is usually prescribed for prophylaxis in persons in close contact with a patient with active tuberculosis?
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Choose the correct reason for severe hypoxia occurring with pulmonary edema:
Which of the following drugs in an inhaler would likely be carried by individuals to provide immediate control of acute asthma attacks?
Development of emphysema in a nonsmoker may be the result of:
Which factors contribute to postoperative atelectasis? 1. Decreased secretions in the airways 2. Drug-related respiratory depression 3. Abdominal distention and pain 4. Excessive deep-breathing and coughing
Primary atypical pneumonia (PAP) is caused by:
All of the following are expected with infant respiratory distress syndrome EXCEPT:
Which factor usually causes metabolic acidosis to develop in association with hypoxia?
Mediastinal flutter associated with chest injury is likely to:
Which of the following individuals is NOT considered to be at high risk for developing active tuberculosis?
Which of the following distinguishes influenza from infectious rhinitis?
The use of a continuous positive airway pump in the treatment of sleep apnea will:
Hemoptysis is a significant sign of:
Which of the following applies to anthrax infection?