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Which of the following actions causes the atrioventricular (AV) valves to close?
When stroke volume decreases, which of the following could maintain cardiac output?
Which of the following describes the pericardial cavity?
Which of the following factors greatly improves venous return to the heart during strenuous exercise?
The function of the baroreceptors is to:
The normal delay in conduction through the AV node is essential for:
Which of the following is a result of increased secretion of epinephrine?
Which of the following causes increased heart rate?
The event that causes the QRS wave on an electrocardiogram (ECG) tracing is:
The first arteries to branch off the aorta are the:
Vasodilation in the skin and viscera results directly from:
Which of the following drugs decrease sodium and fluid retention in the body?
Which of the following are predisposing factors to thrombus formation in the circulation? 1. Decreased viscosity of the blood 2. Damaged blood vessel walls 3. Immobility 4. Prosthetic valves
A drug taken in small doses on a continuing basis to reduce platelet adhesion is:
A partial obstruction in a coronary artery will likely cause:
Cigarette smoking is a risk factor in coronary artery disease because smoking:
The term arteriosclerosis specifically refers to:
A modifiable factor that increases the risk for atherosclerosis is:
Factors that may precipitate an angina attack include all of the following EXCEPT:
When comparing angina with myocardial infarction (MI), which statement is true?
The basic pathophysiology of myocardial infarction is best described as:
Typical early signs or symptoms of myocardial infarction include:
The most common cause of a myocardial infarction is:
Calcium-channel blocking drugs are effective in:
Which of the following confirms the presence of a myocardial infarction?
The size of the necrotic area resulting from myocardial infarction may be minimized by all of the following EXCEPT:
The most common cause of death immediately following a myocardial infarction is:
Why does ventricular fibrillation result in cardiac arrest?
The term cardiac arrest refers to which of the following?
Which change results from total heart block?
The term premature ventricular contraction refers to the condition where:
Which of the following is most likely to cause left-sided congestive heart failure?
The definition of congestive heart failure is:
Significant signs of right-sided congestive heart failure include:
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is marked by:
Compensation mechanisms for decreased cardiac output in cases of congestive heart failure include:
In which blood vessels will failure of the left ventricle cause increased hydrostatic pressure?
Which of the following drugs improves cardiac efficiency by slowing the heart rate and increasing the force of cardiac contractions?
In an infant, the initial indication of congestive heart failure is often:
Effects that may be expected from a beta-adrenergic blocking drug include:
An incompetent mitral valve would cause:
Which of the following describes the blood flow occurring with a ventricular septal defect?
Unoxygenated blood enters the systemic circulation in children with tetralogy of Fallot because:
Cyanosis occurs in children with tetralogy of Fallot because:
The initial effect on the heart in cases of rheumatic fever is:
Common signs of rheumatic fever include all of the following EXCEPT:
Rheumatic heart disease usually manifests in later years as:
Septic emboli, a common complication of infective endocarditis, are a result of the fact that:
Which of the following applies to subacute infective endocarditis?
Pericarditis causes a reduction in cardiac output as a result of which of the following?
Pericarditis may be caused by: 1. infection. 2. abnormal immune responses. 3. injury. 4. malignant neoplasm.
A source of an embolus causing an obstruction in the brain could be the:
The basic pathophysiological change associated with essential hypertension is:
Uncontrolled hypertension is most likely to cause ischemia and loss of function in the:
When is a diagnosis of essential hypertension likely to be considered in young or middle-aged individuals?
Atherosclerosis in the iliac or femoral arteries is likely to cause which of the following? 1. Gangrenous ulcers in the legs 2. Strong rapid pulses in the legs 3. Intermittent claudication 4. Red, swollen legs
The term intermittent claudication refers to:
What is the primary reason for amputation of gangrenous toes or feet in patients with peripheral vascular disease?
An echocardiogram is used to demonstrate any abnormal:
A dissecting aortic aneurysm develops as:
The outcome for many aortic aneurysms is:
Which factor predisposes to varicose veins during pregnancy?
Phlebothrombosis is more likely to cause pulmonary emboli than is thrombophlebitis because:
Shock follows a myocardial infarction when:
What are the early signs of circulatory shock? 1. Pale moist skin 2. Loss of consciousness 3. Anxiety and restlessness 4. Rapid strong pulse
A compensation for shock would include:
Why does anaphylactic shock cause severe hypoxia very quickly?
Neurogenic (vasogenic) shock results from systemic vasodilation due to:
A prolonged period of shock is likely to cause:
What would indicate decompensated acidosis related to shock?
With shock, anaerobic cell metabolism and decreased renal blood flow cause:
Shock develops in patients with severe burns as a result of:
The classic early manifestation(s) of left-sided congestive heart failure is/are ____, whereas the early indicator(s) of right-sided failure is/are _______.
A common adverse effect of many antihypertensive medications is:
The cause of essential hypertension is considered to be:
A cardiac pacemaker would most likely be inserted in cases of:
Which of the following is considered to be the most dangerous arrhythmia?
Which of the following is NOT true of the drug nitroglycerin?
Confirmation of the diagnosis of a myocardial infarction would include: 1. specific changes in the ECG. 2. marked leukocytosis and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). 3. elevation of cardiac isoenzymes in serum. 4. a pattern of pain.
Which of the following statements regarding aneurysms is true?
The most common factor predisposing to the development of varicose veins is:
In the period immediately following a myocardial infarction, the manifestations of pallor and diaphoresis, rapid pulse, and anxiety result from:
Septic shock differs from hypovolemic shock in that it is frequently manifested by:
Heart block, in which a conduction delay at the AV node results in intermittent missed ventricular contractions, is called:
More extensive permanent damage is likely when a myocardial infarction is caused by:
A very rapid heart rate reduces cardiac output because:
The right side of the heart would fail first in the case of: 1. severe mitral valve stenosis. 2. uncontrolled essential hypertension. 3. large infarction in the right ventricle. 4. advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Which of the following compensations that develop in patients with congestive heart failure eventually increase the workload of the heart?
Which statement applies to paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea?
In patients with congestive heart failure, ACE inhibitor drugs are useful because they:
In a child with ventricular septal defect, altered blood flow:
In a child with acute rheumatic fever, arrhythmias may develop due to the presence of:
Prophylactic antibacterial drugs such as amoxicillin are given to patients with certain congenital heart defects or damaged heart valves immediately before invasive procedures to prevent:
Varicose ulcers may develop and be slow to heal because:
Excessive fluid in the pericardial space causes:
Aortic stenosis means the aortic valve: