Quiz 05: Inflammation and Healing

Pathophysiology for the Health Professions

Nursing
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Questions

Q1
Free

Tears are considered to be part of the: 1. first line of defense. 2. second line of defense. 3. third line of defense. 4. specific defenses. 5. nonspecific defenses.

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 4
B) 1, 5
C) 3, 4
D) 2, 5
Answer:
B) 1, 5
Q2
Free

A specific defense for the body is:

Multiple Choice
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A) phagocytosis.
B) sensitized T lymphocytes.
C) the inflammatory response.
D) intact skin and mucous membranes.
Answer:
B) sensitized T lymphocytes.
Q3
Free

The inflammatory response is a nonspecific response to:

Multiple Choice
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A) phagocytosis of foreign material.
B) local vasodilation.
C) any tissue injury.
D) formation of purulent exudates.
Answer:
C) any tissue injury.
Q4

Chemical mediators released during the inflammatory response include:

Multiple Choice
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A) albumin and fibrinogen.
B) growth factors and cell enzymes.
C) macrophages and neutrophils.
D) histamine and prostaglandins.
Answer:

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Q5

Which of the following result directly from the release of chemical mediators following a moderate burn injury? 1. Pain 2. Local vasoconstriction 3. Increased capillary permeability 4. Pallor

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 2
B) 1, 3
C) 2, 3
D) 2, 4
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Q6

Granulation tissue is best described as:

Multiple Choice
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A) highly vascular, very fragile, and very susceptible to infection.
B) an erosion through the wall of viscera, leading to complications.
C) a type of adhesion with no vascularization.
D) a form of stenosis, in a duct, that is extremely tough and resists attack by microbes.
Answer:

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Q7

Edema associated with inflammation results directly from:

Multiple Choice
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A) increased fluid and protein in the interstitial compartment.
B) increased phagocytes in the affected area.
C) decreased capillary permeability.
D) general vasoconstriction.
Answer:

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Q8

The warmth and redness related to the inflammatory response results from:

Multiple Choice
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A) increased interstitial fluid.
B) production of complement.
C) a large number of white blood cells (WBCs) entering the area.
D) increased blood flow into the area.
Answer:

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Q9

What is the correct order of the following events in the inflammatory response immediately after tissue injury? 1. Increased permeability of blood vessels 2. Dilation of blood vessels 3. Transient vasoconstriction 4. Migration of leukocytes to the area 5. Hyperemia

Multiple Choice
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A) 5, 3, 2, 1, 4
B) 1, 2, 4, 5, 3
C) 2, 3, 5, 4, 1
D) 3, 2, 5, 1, 4
Answer:

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Q10

The process of phagocytosis involves the:

Multiple Choice
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A) ingestion of foreign material and cell debris by leukocytes.
B) shift of fluid and protein out of capillaries.
C) formation of a fibrin mesh around the infected area.
D) movement of erythrocytes through the capillary wall.
Answer:

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Q11

Systemic effects of severe inflammation include:

Multiple Choice
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A) erythema and warmth.
B) loss of movement at the affected joint.
C) fatigue, anorexia, and mild fever.
D) abscess formation.
Answer:

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Q12

The term leukocytosis means:

Multiple Choice
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A) increased white blood cells (WBCs) in the blood.
B) decreased WBCs in the blood.
C) increased number of immature circulating leukocytes.
D) significant change in the proportions of WBCs.
Answer:

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Q13

Which of the following statements applies to fever?

Multiple Choice
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A) Viral infection is usually present.
B) Heat-loss mechanisms have been stimulated.
C) It is caused by a signal to the thalamus.
D) It results from release of pyrogens into the circulation.
Answer:

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Q14

Mechanisms to bring an elevated body temperature down to the normal level include:

Multiple Choice
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A) general cutaneous vasodilation.
B) generalized shivering.
C) increased heart rate.
D) increased metabolic rate.
Answer:

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Q15

Replacement of damaged tissue by similar functional cells is termed:

Multiple Choice
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A) fibrosis.
B) regeneration.
C) resolution.
D) repair by scar tissue.
Answer:

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Q16

Scar tissue consists primarily of:

Multiple Choice
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A) granulation tissue.
B) epithelial cells.
C) collagen fibers.
D) new capillaries and smooth muscle fibers.
Answer:

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Q17

Which of the following promotes rapid healing?

Multiple Choice
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A) Closely approximated edges of a wound
B) Presence of foreign material
C) Exposure to radiation
D) Vasoconstriction in the involved area
Answer:

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Q18

Glucocorticoids are used to treat inflammation because they directly:

Multiple Choice
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A) promote the release of prostaglandins at the site.
B) decrease capillary permeability.
C) mobilize lymphocytes and neutrophils.
D) prevent infection.
Answer:

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Q19

Patients taking glucocorticoids for long periods of time are likely to develop all of the following EXCEPT:

Multiple Choice
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A) decreased bone density.
B) wasting of skeletal muscle.
C) opportunistic infections.
D) increased leukocyte production.
Answer:

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Q20

Which of the following drugs relieves fever and some types of pain but is NOT an anti-inflammatory agent?

Multiple Choice
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A) Acetaminophen
B) Prednisone
C) Aspirin
D) Ibuprofen
Answer:

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Q21

A burn area in which the epidermis and part of the dermis is destroyed is classified as:

Multiple Choice
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A) full-thickness.
B) deep partial-thickness.
C) superficial partial-thickness.
D) first-degree.
Answer:

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Q22

A woman has burns on the anterior surfaces of her right arm, chest, and right leg. The percentage of body surface area burned is approximately:

Multiple Choice
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A) 13.5%.
B) 18%.
C) 22.5%.
D) 31.5%.
Answer:

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Q23

The characteristic appearance of a full-thickness burn is:

Multiple Choice
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A) painful with multiple blisters.
B) heavy bleeding.
C) red with some swelling.
D) dry, firm, charred, or hard white surface.
Answer:

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Q24

A typical source of infection in burn areas is:

Multiple Choice
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A) the skin grafts.
B) microbes surviving in the hair follicles in the burn area.
C) circulating blood bringing microbes to the burn wound.
D) opportunistic virus in digestive tract.
Answer:

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Q25

A large burn area predisposes to decreased blood pressure because:

Multiple Choice
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A) bleeding occurs under the burn surface.
B) the heart is damaged by toxic materials from the burn.
C) fluid and protein shift out of the blood.
D) vasoconstriction occurs in the burn area.
Answer:

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Q26

During an inflammatory response, hyperemia is caused by:

Multiple Choice
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A) increased blood flow in the area.
B) increased capillary permeability.
C) irritation of sensory nerve endings by histamine.
D) increased leukocytes in the area.
Answer:

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Q27

The advantages of applying a biosynthetic skin substitute to a large area of full-thickness burns include: 1. reduced risk of infection. 2. decreased loss of plasma protein and fluid. 3. developing stronger fibrous scar tissue. 4. more rapid healing. 5. regeneration of all glands, nerves, and hair follicles.

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 3
B) 4, 5
C) 1, 2, 4
D) 2, 3, 5
Answer:

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Q28

Purulent exudates usually contain:

Multiple Choice
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A) small amounts of plasma protein & histamine in water.
B) red blood cells & all types of white blood cells.
C) numerous leukocytes, bacteria, and cell debris.
D) large amounts of water containing a few cells.
Answer:

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Q29

Isoenzymes in the circulating blood:

Multiple Choice
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A) are a type of plasma protein normally present in the circulating blood.
B) often indicate the precise location of an inflammatory response.
C) are normally released from leukocytes during the inflammatory response.
D) are pyrogens, causing low-grade fever.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q30

A serous exudate is best described as a:

Multiple Choice
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A) thin, watery, colorless exudate.
B) thick, sticky, cloudy secretion.
C) thick, greenish material containing microbes.
D) brownish, clotted material.
Answer:

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Q31

Systemic manifestations of an inflammatory response include:

Multiple Choice
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A) edema and erythema.
B) area of necrosis and loss of function.
C) pain and tenderness.
D) fever and malaise.
Answer:

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Q32

Some local effects of a general inflammatory response would include:

Multiple Choice
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A) high, spiking fever and chills.
B) redness, warmth, and swelling.
C) leukopenia and reduced erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
D) anorexia and headaches.
Answer:

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Q33

Prolonged administration of glucocorticoids such as prednisone may cause: 1. atrophy of lymphoid tissue. 2. increased resistance to infection. 3. thrombocytopenia. 4. decreased protein synthesis.

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 2
B) 1, 3
C) 1, 4
D) 2, 4
Answer:

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Q34

Application of ice to an injured knee reduces edema by:

Multiple Choice
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A) promoting return of lymph fluid.
B) causing local vasoconstriction.
C) increasing the rate of tissue repair.
D) causing systemic vasodilation.
Answer:

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Q35

Healing of large areas of skin loss (including dermis and epidermis) would be most successful through:

Multiple Choice
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A) rapid mitosis and regeneration of skin layers.
B) resolution of damaged cells in the area.
C) covering the area with biosynthetic skin substitute.
D) graft of fibrous tissue to the area.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q36

Prostaglandins are produced from ___________ and cause ___________.

Multiple Choice
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A) activated plasma protein; increased capillary permeability
B) mast cells; vasodilation and pain
C) platelets; attraction of neutrophils, chemotaxis
D) mast cell granules; activation of histamines and kinins
Answer:

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Q37

The number of neutrophils in the blood is increased significantly:

Multiple Choice
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A) during allergic reactions.
B) during chronic inflammation.
C) to produce antibodies.
D) in order to promote phagocytosis.
Answer:

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Q38

An abscess contains:

Multiple Choice
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A) serous exudate.
B) purulent exudate.
C) fibrinous exudate.
D) hemorrhagic exudate.
Answer:

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Q39

Nonspecific agents that protect uninfected cells against viruses are called:

Multiple Choice
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A) neutrophils.
B) macrophages.
C) interferons.
D) pyrogens.
Answer:

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Q40

Causes of inflammation include:

Multiple Choice
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A) direct physical damage such as cuts and sprains.
B) allergic reactions.
C) infection.
D) All the above
Answer:

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Q41

In normal capillary exchange, what is net hydrostatic pressure based on?

Multiple Choice
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A) The difference between the hydrostatic pressure within the capillary, as compared with the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid
B) The relative osmotic pressures in the blood and the interstitial fluid
C) The difference between the hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure within the capillary
D) The difference between the concentrations of blood cells, plasma proteins, and dissolved substances in the blood and the interstitial fluid
Answer:

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Q42

The cardinal signs of inflammation include all of the following EXCEPT:

Multiple Choice
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A) redness.
B) loss of function.
C) nausea.
D) swelling.
Answer:

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Q43

Drugs that have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities include: 1. COX-2 inhibitors (NSAIDs). 2. glucocorticoids (e.g., prednisone). 3. ibuprofen (NSAID). 4. acetaminophen. 5. aspirin (ASA).

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 2
B) 2, 4
C) 1, 3, 5
D) 1, 4, 5
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q44

Aspirin (ASA) is discouraged for treatment of viral infection in children because of:

Multiple Choice
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A) decreased bone growth after puberty.
B) frequent production of blood clots.
C) formation of a granuloma filled with virus.
D) the risk of developing Reyes syndrome.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q45

Systemic manifestations of inflammation include all EXCEPT:

Multiple Choice
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A) pyrexia.
B) malaise.
C) local swelling.
D) anorexia.
Answer:

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Q46

Which of the following cellular elements found in the inflammatory response are responsible for phagocytosis?

Multiple Choice
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A) Macrophages
B) Basophils
C) B lymphocytes
D) T lymphocytes
E) Eosinophils
Answer:

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Q47

Which chemical mediator is involved in prolonging the inflammatory response?

Multiple Choice
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A) Bradykinin
B) Histamine
C) Leukotrienes
D) Chemotactic factors
Answer:

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Q48

Potential complications after healing by scar formation include all the following EXCEPT:

Multiple Choice
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A) lack of sensory function in the area.
B) contractures and adhesions.
C) increased hair growth.
D) keloid formation.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q49

All of the following are correct statements regarding wound healing EXCEPT:

Multiple Choice
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A) Resolution occurs where there is minimal tissue damage and the cells can recover.
B) Granulation tissue forms a permanent replacement for damaged tissue.
C) Regeneration occurs where the cells are capable of mitosis.
D) Scar tissue forms where the surrounding cells are incapable of mitosis.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q50

Which of the following statements regarding inflammation is incorrect?

Multiple Choice
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A) Inflammation caused by an allergen or a burn will typically produce a serous exudate.
B) Infection is one cause of inflammation.
C) Inflammation is the bodys nonspecific response to tissue injury.
D) Disorders are named using the ending -sarcoma to indicate inflammation.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q51

Which of the following helps to localize and wall off the foreign material during an inflammatory response?

Multiple Choice
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A) Lymphocytes
B) Increased fluid
C) Fibrinogen
D) Antibodies
Answer:

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Q52

Why is an application of cold recommended as part of the RICE first aid measures immediately following an inflammatory response due to injury?

Multiple Choice
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A) It improves circulation in the area removing chemical mediators.
B) It causes local vasoconstriction to reduce local edema.
C) It draws more phagocytic cells to the area to remove debris.
D) It promotes immediate healing.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q53

One goal for current research in tissue engineering is to:

Multiple Choice
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A) create a functional replacement tissue when regeneration is not possible.
B) adapt cells from the injured organ to produce replacement tissue.
C) design a nonliving synthetic replacement tissue.
D) use stem cells as a temporary covering for damaged tissue.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q54

Identify the proper sequence in the healing process.

Multiple Choice
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A) A blood clot forms; granulation tissue grows into the gap; new blood vessels develop; phagocytosis of foreign material and cell debris occurs; and collagen fibers form a tight, strong scar.
B) A blood clot forms; phagocytes remove foreign material and cell debris; granulation tissue grows into the gap; new blood vessels form; and collagen fibers promote formation of a tight, strong scar.
C) Collagen fibers form in the damaged area; a blood clot forms; granulation tissue grows into the gap; angiogenesis takes place; and foreign material and cell debris are removed by phagocytes.
D) Foreign material and cell debris are removed by phagocytes; a blood clot forms; granulation tissue grows into the gap; new blood vessels form; and collagen fibers grow and cross-link.
Answer:

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Q55

All of the following are factors that promote healing EXCEPT:

Multiple Choice
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A) good nutrition: protein, vitamins A and C.
B) a clean, undisturbed wound.
C) effective circulation.
D) advanced age.
Answer:

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Q56

Identify the correct statement about burns:

Multiple Choice
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A) The severity of the burn depends on the temperature, duration, and extent of the burn.
B) Young children are less likely to suffer severe burns from immersion in excessively hot water.
C) Burns to the palms of the hands are more damaging than burns on the face.
D) With a major burn, excessive bleeding usually causes shock.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q57

Which statement applies to the recommended emergency care for burns?

Multiple Choice
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A) Drop and lie completely still on your back.
B) Call a neighbor for help if the burn appears to be extensive.
C) Apply lotion and cover burn tightly with a sheet or towel.
D) Cover the burn area with clean, cool, or tepid water and remove nonsticking clothing.
Answer:

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Q58

Inhalation of carbon monoxide is a threat for many burn patients because this gas:

Multiple Choice
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A) causes swelling in the trachea.
B) quickly reduces the available oxygen in the blood.
C) prevents full expansion of the lungs.
D) is toxic to the nervous system.
Answer:

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Q59

Hypermetabolism is common with major burns because of:

Multiple Choice
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A) increased heat loss from the burn wound.
B) demand for tissue repair.
C) recurrent stress response.
D) All of the above
Answer:

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Q60

How does scar tissue usually cause obstructions to develop in tube-like structures?

Multiple Choice
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A) Scar tissue continues to grow and spread, causing a blockage.
B) Scar tissue does not stretch, but rather shrinks in time, causing narrowing.
C) Scar tissue twists and forms knots as it develops.
D) Scar tissue attaches to nearby normal tissue, causing obstruction.
Answer:

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Q61

Which of the following is a serious potential complication found only with the anti-inflammatory COX-2 inhibitor drugs?

Multiple Choice
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A) Increased risk of infection at the site of inflammation
B) Reyes syndrome developing in children and young adults
C) Increased incidence of heart attacks
D) Greatly delayed blood clotting
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

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