Quiz 02: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Imbalances

Pathophysiology for the Health Professions

Nursing
50
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True/False
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Questions

Q1
Free

Choose the correct proportion of water to body weight to be expected in a healthy male adults body:

Multiple Choice
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A) 30%
B) 45%
C) 60%
D) 70%
Answer:
C) 60%
Q2
Free

Choose the correct proportion of blood (to body weight) in an adult males body:

Multiple Choice
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A) 30%
B) 20%
C) 10%
D) 4%
Answer:
D) 4%
Q3
Free

Insensible fluid loss refers to water lost through:

Multiple Choice
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A) perspiration only.
B) feces only.
C) perspiration and expiration.
D) urine and feces.
Answer:
C) perspiration and expiration.
Q4

When the osmotic pressure of the blood is elevated above normal, water would shift from the:

Multiple Choice
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A) blood into the cells.
B) interstitial compartment into the cells.
C) interstitial compartment into the blood.
D) cells into the interstitial compartment.
Answer:

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Q5

Which of the following would result from a deficit of plasma proteins?

Multiple Choice
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A) Increased osmotic pressure
B) Decreased osmotic pressure
C) Increased hydrostatic pressure
D) Decreased hydrostatic pressure
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q6

Which of the following would cause edema?

Multiple Choice
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A) Decreased capillary hydrostatic pressure
B) Increased capillary osmotic pressure
C) Decreased capillary permeability
D) Increased capillary permeability
Answer:

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Q7

Which of the following would likely be related to an elevated hematocrit reading?

Multiple Choice
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A) Fluid excess
B) Fluid deficit
C) Increased sodium level
D) Decreased erythrocytes
Answer:

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Q8

Which of the following is a typical sign of dehydration?

Multiple Choice
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A) Rapid, strong pulse
B) Low hematocrit
C) Increased urine output
D) Rough oral mucosa
Answer:

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Q9

Which of the following terms refers to a combination of decreased circulating blood volume combined with excess fluid in a body cavity?

Multiple Choice
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A) Dehydration
B) Third-spacing
C) Hypovolemia
D) Water retention
Answer:

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Q10

Which of the following is the primary cation in the extracellular fluid?

Multiple Choice
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A) Sodium
B) Potassium
C) Calcium
D) Iron
Answer:

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Q11

Which of the following is a common cause of hyponatremia?

Multiple Choice
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A) Loss of the thirst mechanism
B) Excessive sweating
C) Excessive aldosterone secretion
D) Prolonged period of rapid, deep respirations
Answer:

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Q12

Which of the following is a common effect of both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia?

Multiple Choice
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A) Skeletal muscle twitch and cramps
B) Oliguria
C) Elevated serum pH
D) Cardiac arrhythmias
Answer:

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Q13

Choose the correct effect of increased parathyroid hormone.

Multiple Choice
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A) Increased movement of calcium ions into the bones
B) Increased activation of vitamin D
C) Increased absorption of calcium from the digestive tract
D) Decreased reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys
Answer:

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Q14

Which of the following results from hypocalcemia? 1. Low serum phosphate levels 2. Nausea and constipation 3. Skeletal muscle twitch and spasms 4. Weak cardiac contractions

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 2
B) 1, 4
C) 2, 3
D) 3, 4
Answer:

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Q15

Which of the following causes tetany?

Multiple Choice
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A) Increased permeability of nerve membranes due to low serum calcium
B) Excess calcium ions in skeletal muscle due to excess parathyroid hormone (PTH)
C) Excess calcium ions inside somatic nerves as a result of neoplasms
D) Increased stimulation of the nerves in the cerebral cortex
Answer:

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Q16

In which of the following processes is phosphate ion NOT a major component?

Multiple Choice
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A) Bone metabolism
B) Metabolic processes involving adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
C) Blood clotting
D) Acid-base balance
Answer:

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Q17

Which of the following would be considered normal serum pH?

Multiple Choice
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A) 4.5-8
B) 7.0
C) 7.4
D) 8
Answer:

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Q18

When many excess hydrogen ions accumulate in the blood, what happens to serum pH? The pH:

Multiple Choice
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A) decreases.
B) increases.
C) remains constant.
D) varies based on metabolism.
Answer:

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Q19

What is the slowest but most effective control for acid-base balance?

Multiple Choice
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A) Respiratory system
B) Buffer systems in the blood
C) Kidneys
D) Brain
Answer:

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Q20

Which of the following is essential in order to maintain serum pH within normal range?

Multiple Choice
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A) Carbonic acid and bicarbonate ion must be present in equal quantities.
B) All excess carbonic acid must be excreted by the kidneys.
C) The concentration of bicarbonate ion must remain constant.
D) The ratio of carbonic acid to bicarbonate ion must be 1:20.
Answer:

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Q21

Which is the correct effect on the body of abnormally slow respirations?

Multiple Choice
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A) Increased carbonic acid
B) Decreased carbonic acid
C) Increased bicarbonate ion
D) Decreased bicarbonate ion
Answer:

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Q22

Which condition is likely to cause metabolic acidosis?

Multiple Choice
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A) Slow, shallow respirations
B) Prolonged diarrhea
C) Mild vomiting
D) Excessive fluid in the body
Answer:

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Q23

What would a serum pH of 7.33 in a patient with kidney disease indicate?

Multiple Choice
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A) Metabolic alkalosis
B) Metabolic acidosis
C) Respiratory alkalosis
D) Respiratory acidosis
Answer:

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Q24

Which serum value indicates decompensated metabolic acidosis?

Multiple Choice
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A) pH is below normal range
B) pH is above normal range
C) Bicarbonate level decreases
D) Bicarbonate level increases
Answer:

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Q25

What is the effect on blood serum when excessive lactic acid accumulates in the body?

Multiple Choice
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A) Bicarbonate ion levels decrease
B) Bicarbonate ion levels increase
C) Carbonic acid levels increase
D) pH increases
Answer:

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Q26

The direct effects of acidosis are manifested primarily in the functioning of the:

Multiple Choice
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A) Digestive system
B) Urinary system
C) Nervous system
D) Respiratory system
Answer:

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Q27

Compensation mechanisms in the body for dehydration would include:

Multiple Choice
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A) increased antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
B) decreased aldosterone.
C) slow, strong heart contraction.
D) peripheral vasodilation.
Answer:

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Q28

Which acid-base imbalance results from impaired expiration due to emphysema?

Multiple Choice
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A) Metabolic acidosis
B) Metabolic alkalosis
C) Respiratory acidosis
D) Respiratory alkalosis
Answer:

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Q29

In patients with impaired expiration associated with emphysema, effective compensation for the acid-base imbalance would be:

Multiple Choice
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A) increased rate and depth of respiration.
B) decreased rate and depth of respiration.
C) increased urine pH and decreased serum bicarbonate.
D) decreased urine pH and increased serum bicarbonate.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q30

An anxiety attack often causes hyperventilation leading to:

Multiple Choice
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A) increased PCO2.
B) decreased PCO2.
C) respiratory acidosis.
D) metabolic acidosis.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q31

One of the factors involved in the increased need for water in infants is:

Multiple Choice
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A) proportionally smaller body surface area.
B) higher metabolic rate.
C) smaller respiratory capacity.
D) greater surface area of exposed mucous membranes.
Answer:

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Q32

Compensation for respiratory system depression due to anesthesia and sedation would be:

Multiple Choice
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A) decreased reabsorption of bicarbonate ions in the kidneys.
B) increased secretion of hydrogen ions into the filtrate.
C) increased respiratory rate and depth.
D) increased renin secretion.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q33

A prolonged state of metabolic acidosis often leads to:

Multiple Choice
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A) hypokalemia.
B) hyperkalemia.
C) hyponatremia.
D) hypercalcemia.
Answer:

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Q34

Strenuous physical exercise on a hot day is likely to result in:

Multiple Choice
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A) hypokalemia.
B) hypernatremia.
C) hyperchloremia.
D) hypovolemia.
Answer:

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Q35

Place the following events in the correct sequence of events when ketoacids increase in the blood of a diabetic patient. Not all options are used in the answers. 1. Serum pH decreases 2. Serum bicarbonate decreases 3. PCO2 decreases 4. Respiration decreases 5. Respiration increases 6. Serum pH increases 7. Urine pH decreases

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 3, 7, 4, 2, 6
B) 5, 2, 7, 3, 4, 1
C) 2, 1, 5, 3, 7, 6
D) 3, 1, 2, 5, 7, 6
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q36

Which of the following is a manifestation of respiratory alkalosis?

Multiple Choice
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A) Bradycardia and deep rapid breathing
B) Drowsiness and general lethargy
C) Increased nervous system irritability
D) Decreased urine pH
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q37

Prolonged diarrhea results in:

Multiple Choice
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A) loss of fluid and bicarbonate ions, leading to metabolic acidosis.
B) increased fluid and serum bicarbonate ions, leading to metabolic acidosis.
C) loss of chloride ions only, leading to metabolic alkalosis.
D) surplus bicarbonate ions, leading to respiratory alkalosis.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q38

In the initial stage, vomiting results in:

Multiple Choice
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A) metabolic acidosis.
B) metabolic alkalosis.
C) respiratory alkalosis.
D) None of the above
Answer:

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Q39

Which two ions are most important for acid-base balance in the body?

Multiple Choice
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A) K+, Na+
B) Cl and HCO3
C) Ca++, Na+
D) Na+, Cl
Answer:

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Q40

The bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system helps maintain serum pH. The balance of the carbonic acid and bicarbonate ion levels are controlled by the:

Multiple Choice
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A) liver and pancreas.
B) lungs and kidneys.
C) lungs and plasma proteins.
D) kidneys and bone marrow.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q41

Alkalosis increases irritability and spontaneous stimulation of nerves by:

Multiple Choice
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A) blocking normal nerve conduction.
B) increasing the permeability of nerve membranes.
C) blocking movement of calcium ions.
D) decreasing phosphate ion levels.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q42

Hypocalcemia causes weak cardiac contractions because:

Multiple Choice
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A) permeability of nerve membranes increases.
B) insufficient calcium ions are available for muscle contraction.
C) low phosphate ion levels prevent muscle contraction.
D) excessive amounts of calcium are stored in cardiac muscle.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q43

Serum potassium levels are affected by: 1. ADH. 2. aldosterone. 3. serum H+ levels. 4. insulin levels. a. 2 only

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 2
B) 1, 3
C) 2, 3, 4
D) 1, 2, 3
Answer:

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Q44

Which of the following is the primary control of serum Na+ levels?

Multiple Choice
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A) ADH
B) Aldosterone
C) Serum H+ levels
D) serum K+ levels
Answer:

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Q45

The control center for thirst is located in the:

Multiple Choice
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A) kidneys.
B) thalamus.
C) medulla.
D) hypothalamus.
Answer:

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Q46

Which statements apply to atrial natriuretic peptide? 1. It is secreted by heart muscle cells. 2. It is a hormone secreted by the kidneys. 3. It helps to control water and sodium balance. 4. It is released in response to low blood pressure.

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 3
B) 1, 4
C) 2, 3
D) 2, 4
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q47

What are the three mechanisms that control or compensate for serum pH?

Multiple Choice
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A) Hypothalamus, metabolic changes by digestive system, lymphatic system filtration
B) Buffer pairs in blood, change in kidney excretion rate, change in respiration rate
C) Neural feedback, increase in heart rate, decrease in calcium intake
D) Modification of water intake, increased capillary permeability, decrease in blood volume
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q48

Hypokalemia refers to a condition in which the serum has a very low level of which ion?

Multiple Choice
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A) Sodium
B) Phosphate
C) Calcium
D) Potassium
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q49

In the blood and extracellular fluids, hypernatremia refers to:

Multiple Choice
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A) a deficient sodium level.
B) an excess phosphate level.
C) an excess sodium level.
D) an excessively low phosphate level.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q50

Increased milk and/or antacid intake can contribute to development of milk-alkali syndrome, which can cause which of the following?

Multiple Choice
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A) Hyponatremia
B) Hyperkalemia
C) Hypercalcemia
D) Hypovolemia
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

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