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Choose the correct proportion of water to body weight to be expected in a healthy male adults body:
Choose the correct proportion of blood (to body weight) in an adult males body:
Insensible fluid loss refers to water lost through:
When the osmotic pressure of the blood is elevated above normal, water would shift from the:
Which of the following would result from a deficit of plasma proteins?
Which of the following would cause edema?
Which of the following would likely be related to an elevated hematocrit reading?
Which of the following is a typical sign of dehydration?
Which of the following terms refers to a combination of decreased circulating blood volume combined with excess fluid in a body cavity?
Which of the following is the primary cation in the extracellular fluid?
Which of the following is a common cause of hyponatremia?
Which of the following is a common effect of both hypokalemia and hyperkalemia?
Choose the correct effect of increased parathyroid hormone.
Which of the following results from hypocalcemia? 1. Low serum phosphate levels 2. Nausea and constipation 3. Skeletal muscle twitch and spasms 4. Weak cardiac contractions
Which of the following causes tetany?
In which of the following processes is phosphate ion NOT a major component?
Which of the following would be considered normal serum pH?
When many excess hydrogen ions accumulate in the blood, what happens to serum pH? The pH:
What is the slowest but most effective control for acid-base balance?
Which of the following is essential in order to maintain serum pH within normal range?
Which is the correct effect on the body of abnormally slow respirations?
Which condition is likely to cause metabolic acidosis?
What would a serum pH of 7.33 in a patient with kidney disease indicate?
Which serum value indicates decompensated metabolic acidosis?
What is the effect on blood serum when excessive lactic acid accumulates in the body?
The direct effects of acidosis are manifested primarily in the functioning of the:
Compensation mechanisms in the body for dehydration would include:
Which acid-base imbalance results from impaired expiration due to emphysema?
In patients with impaired expiration associated with emphysema, effective compensation for the acid-base imbalance would be:
An anxiety attack often causes hyperventilation leading to:
One of the factors involved in the increased need for water in infants is:
Compensation for respiratory system depression due to anesthesia and sedation would be:
A prolonged state of metabolic acidosis often leads to:
Strenuous physical exercise on a hot day is likely to result in:
Place the following events in the correct sequence of events when ketoacids increase in the blood of a diabetic patient. Not all options are used in the answers. 1. Serum pH decreases 2. Serum bicarbonate decreases 3. PCO2 decreases 4. Respiration decreases 5. Respiration increases 6. Serum pH increases 7. Urine pH decreases
Which of the following is a manifestation of respiratory alkalosis?
In the initial stage, vomiting results in:
Which two ions are most important for acid-base balance in the body?
The bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system helps maintain serum pH. The balance of the carbonic acid and bicarbonate ion levels are controlled by the:
Alkalosis increases irritability and spontaneous stimulation of nerves by:
Hypocalcemia causes weak cardiac contractions because:
Serum potassium levels are affected by: 1. ADH. 2. aldosterone. 3. serum H+ levels. 4. insulin levels. a. 2 only
Which of the following is the primary control of serum Na+ levels?
The control center for thirst is located in the:
Which statements apply to atrial natriuretic peptide? 1. It is secreted by heart muscle cells. 2. It is a hormone secreted by the kidneys. 3. It helps to control water and sodium balance. 4. It is released in response to low blood pressure.
What are the three mechanisms that control or compensate for serum pH?
Hypokalemia refers to a condition in which the serum has a very low level of which ion?
In the blood and extracellular fluids, hypernatremia refers to: