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Through what area does the cerebrospinal fluid circulate around the brain and spinal cord?
Which of the following is the usual location of language centers?
What would be the effect of damage to the auditory association area in the left hemisphere?
Which of the following applies to the corticospinal tract?
What is a major function of the limbic system?
Where are 1-adrenergic receptors located?
What does a vegetative state refer to?
Which of the following conditions is NOT part of the criteria for a declaration of brain death?
What is the best definition of aphasia?
What is an early indicator of increased intracranial pressure?
What is the rationale for vomiting in a patient who has increased intracranial pressure?
What is the typical change in blood pressure in a patient who has increased intracranial pressure?
The largest category of primary malignant brain tumors that arise from cells in the central nervous system (CNS) are called:
Which of the following causes papilledema?
What is the effect of an enlarging brain abscess on cardiovascular activity?
As intracranial pressure rises, the pupil of the eye, ipsilateral to the lesion, becomes dilated and unresponsive to light because of pressure on the:
Which of the following characteristics indicates that the CSF is normal?
Which of the following statements is TRUE about malignant brain tumors?
Secondary brain tumors usually arise from:
Why are focal or generalized seizures sometimes an early indication of a brain tumor?
Which of the following is a TRUE statement about transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)?
What is the probable source of an embolus causing a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)?
Collateral circulation is most likely to be present when a CVA results from:
All of the following apply to CVA EXCEPT:
Signs and symptoms of a stroke depend upon:
In the weeks following CVA, why might some neurological function return? 1. Presence of collateral circulation 2. Immediate therapy to dissolve thrombi and maintain perfusion 3. Reduced inflammation in the area 4. Development of alternative neuronal pathways
Which of the following statements about berry aneurysms in the brain is NOT true?
In a case of bacterial meningitis, where does swelling and purulent exudate form?
What are significant signs of acute bacterial meningitis?
In many types of encephalitis, such as St. Louis encephalitis, how are the viruses transmitted?
All of the following apply to tetanus infection EXCEPT:
In cases of Guillain-Barr syndrome, what does the pathophysiology include?
How does a depressed skull fracture cause brain damage?
Following a head injury, what is the most likely cause of secondary damage to the brain?
An epidural hematoma is located between the:
Vertebral fractures are classified as:
Following a spinal injury at C5, what is the expected effect during the period of spinal shock?
Following an injury at L2 to L3, what would indicate recovery from spinal shock?
What are the signs of autonomic dysreflexia in a person with cervical spinal injury?
Expressive aphasia is most likely to result from damage to:
What is the usual result of damage to the right occipital lobe?
How does the heart rate change as intracranial pressure increases?
Which statement best describes herniation resulting from increased intracranial pressure?
Which type of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) has the poorest prognosis?
Which of the following factors predispose(s) an individual to a CVA? 1. Hypertension 2. Smoking cigarettes 3. History of coronary artery disease 4. Diabetes mellitus
What are the significant early signs of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm?
The stroke scale used to rapidly diagnose a stroke includes:
With regard to meningitis, choose the correct combination of microbe and the age group commonly affected.
Which of the following statements applies to a lumbar puncture?
Which signs are indicative of post-polio syndrome?
Which of the following does NOT apply to Reyes syndrome?
Which type of fracture typically occurs at the base of the skull?
The primary reason for seizures frequently occurring with head injuries is:
Brain injury where the brain is injured when it bounces off of the skull due to sudden acceleration or deceleration is referred to as a/an:
The rabies virus is usually transmitted by:
Common manifestations of rabies infection include:
Which statement is TRUE about tetanus infection?
Which of the following impairments results from infection by the polio virus?
Herpes zoster can be identified by a typical:
Which of the following conditions is marked by focal signs?
In cases of noncommunicating hydrocephalus, why does excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulate?
All of the following are typical signs of hydrocephalus in the neonate EXCEPT:
The best description of a myelomeningocele is:
How is the presence of spina bifida diagnosed?
What characteristic is common to all individuals with cerebral palsy?
Which of the following applies to cerebral palsy?
Which of the following is characteristic of generalized seizures?
From the following, choose the two events (in correct sequence) that immediately follow the aura during a tonic-clonic event:
What does the clonic stage of a seizure consist of?
How would a seizure consisting of bizarre or inappropriate activity be classified?
Which of the following is characteristic of multiple sclerosis?
Which statement does NOT apply to the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis?
Which of the following are common early signs of multiple sclerosis?
Which of the following applies to Parkinsons disease?
What is the pathophysiological change in Parkinsons disease?
Which of the following are common early manifestations of Parkinsons disease?
In which type of neuron is progressive degeneration occurring with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?
Which of the following statements does NOT apply to myasthenia gravis?
Which statement applies to Huntingtons disease?
What are the characteristic changes in the brain of a patient with Alzheimers disease?
Which disease is associated with excessive dopamine secretion, decreased gray matter in the temporal lobes, and abnormal hippocampal cells in the brain?
In which disorders do biochemical abnormalities involving the neurotransmitters in the brain occur? 1. Bipolar disorder 2. Schizophrenia 3. Huntingtons disease 4. AIDS dementia
Which of the following are typical characteristics associated with schizophrenia?
What is the typical initial effect of a herniated intervertebral disc at the L4 to L5 level?
What causes a herniated intervertebral disc?
Which of the following dietary supplements has reduced the incidence of spina bifida in recent years?
Which of the following is the most common cause of brain damage in children with cerebral palsy?
The ataxic form of cerebral palsy results from damage to the:
Which of the following is used to confirm the diagnosis of, and classify, seizures?
Which statement does NOT apply to status epilepticus?
Which type of seizure commonly occurs in children?
All of the following may precipitate a seizure EXCEPT:
Which of the following is NOT a typical effect of advanced Parkinsons disease?
Which of the following is a typical early sign of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?
Which of the following classes of drugs may provide temporary improvement in cases of myasthenia gravis?
Which of the following are typical early signs of Alzheimers disease? 1. Behavioral changes 2. Reduced ability to reason and problem solve 3. Decreased verbal responses 4. Urinary incontinence
Which of the following is NOT considered to be a common contributing factor to AIDS dementia?
Communicating hydrocephalus causes increased intracranial pressure because of:
Failure of the spinous processes to fuse, but without herniation of the meninges, is called:
Which statement is TRUE about amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)?
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is caused by:
Huntingtons disease is diagnosed by: