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Which of the following cells in the gastric mucosa produce intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid?
Which of the following is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?
When highly acidic chyme enters the duodenum, which hormone stimulates the release of pancreatic secretions that contains very high bicarbonate ion content?
Which of the following breaks protein down into peptides?
In which structure is oxygenated blood (arterial) mixed with unoxygenated blood (venous) so as to support the functions of the structure?
Which of the following stimulates increased peristalsis and secretions in the digestive tract?
Which of the following is contained in pancreatic exocrine secretions?
The presence of food in the intestine stimulates intestinal activity but inhibits gastric activity through the:
Which of the following processes is likely to occur in the body immediately after a meal?
What does the term gluconeogenesis refer to?
Normally, proteins or amino acids are required to produce all of the following EXCEPT:
Which of the following statements applies to bile salts?
Yellow or greenish stained vomitus usually indicates the presence of:
Small, hidden amounts of blood in stool are referred to as:
Severe vomiting can lead to metabolic acidosis because of increased:
Which of the following applies to the act of swallowing?
What does the defecation reflex require?
What does congenital esophageal atresia cause?
Which of the following applies to cleft palate?
Why does herpes simplex infection tend to recur?
What does the term periodontitis refer to?
What is/are common location(s) for oral cancer?
What is a common cause of hiatal hernia?
What is a common sign of acute gastritis?
What does the pathophysiology of chronic gastritis include?
What is a common cause of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella?
Which of the following individuals is likely to develop acute gastritis?
What does congenital pyloric stenosis involve?
A patient with acquired pyloric stenosis would likely:
Prolonged or severe stress predisposes to peptic ulcer disease because:
The pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease may involve any of the following EXCEPT:
Which of the following would a perforated gastric ulcer likely cause?
What is frequently the first manifestation of stress ulcers?
What would be the result of chronic bleeding from gastric carcinoma?
Following gastric resection, the onset of nausea, cramps, and dizziness immediately after meals indicates:
Why does mild hyperbilirubinemia occur in newborns?
Predisposing factors to cholelithiasis include excessive:
What is the major effect when a gallstone obstructs the cystic duct?
Obstruction of the biliary tract by gallstones is referred to as:
Which of the following applies to hepatitis A infection?
What can be concluded if the hepatitis B antigen level remains high in the serum?
What is the most common type of hepatitis transmitted by blood transfusion?
During the course of a hepatitis B infection, the onset of jaundice occurs in the:
What is the likely effect of long-term exposure to a hepatotoxin?
What indicates the presence of third-stage alcohol hepatitis?
A factor that may precipitate encephalopathy with cirrhosis is the elevated:
In patients with cirrhosis, serum ammonia may increase when:
What is the primary cause of esophageal varices?
What is the primary cause of increased bleeding tendencies associated with cirrhosis?
Which factors contribute to ascites in patients with cirrhosis?
Which of the following is a major cause of primary hepatocellular cancer?
What causes massive inflammation and necrosis in acute pancreatitis?
How does chemical peritonitis and shock frequently result from acute pancreatitis?
Malnutrition may develop in children with celiac disease because of:
Which of the following best describes steatorrhea?
What is the dietary requirement for a child with celiac disease?
What are the typical changes occurring with Crohns disease?
Stools that are more liquid and contain mucus and frank blood are typical of:
How may a fistula form with Crohns disease?
How does iron deficiency anemia frequently develop with ulcerative colitis?
What is the cause of inflammatory bowel disease?
What pain is typical of diverticulitis?
What usually initiates acute appendicitis?
With acute appendicitis, localized pain and tenderness in the lower right quadrant results from:
How does localized peritonitis develop from acute appendicitis before rupture?
What is a typical early sign of cancer in the ascending colon?
To which site does colon cancer usually first metastasize?
How does a volvulus cause localized gangrene in the intestine?
Which of the following is a typical indicator of an intestinal obstruction caused by paralytic ileus?
A congenital condition in which parasympathetic innervation is missing from a section of the colon, impairing motility is referred to as:
What causes hypovolemic shock to develop with intestinal obstruction?
What causes the characteristic rigid abdomen found in the patient with peritonitis?
What would be the likely outcome from chemical peritonitis related to a perforated gallbladder?
How does pelvic inflammatory disease frequently lead to bacterial peritonitis?
Choose the significant change in arterial blood gases expected with prolonged severe vomiting:
When dehydration reduces the compensation possible for acidosis resulting from prolonged diarrhea, what significant change in arterial blood gases indicates this?
Bile pigment gallstones are more common in individuals dealing with:
Dehydration limits compensation available for an acid-base imbalance resulting from prolonged vomiting and diarrhea because:
Which of the following is the most frequent location of peptic ulcers?
In peptic ulcer disease, which of the following does NOT decrease the resistance of the mucosal barrier?
An individual with peptic ulcer disease exhibits hematemesis. What does this probably indicate?
Which of the following is NOT a common predisposing factor to gastric carcinoma?
Which of the following frequently occurs 2 to 3 hours after meals in post-gastrectomy patients?
Which term refers to an inflammation usually related to infection of the bile ducts?
Which of the following is NOT usually present during the icteric stage of viral hepatitis?
Which of the following statement(s) about jaundice is/are true? 1. It is often the first manifestation of hepatitis. 2. Jaundice indicates permanent liver damage. 3. Individuals with hepatitis are always jaundiced. 4. Jaundice usually develops with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Which type(s) of hepatitis increase(s) the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma?
Which of the following is/are related to post-hepatic jaundice?
Which of the following occurs with hepatitis B?
Identify a major reason making it difficult to prevent the spread of hepatitis B.
What is the initial pathological change in alcoholic liver disease?
How does serum bilirubin change with cirrhosis?
Which type of hepatitis virus requires the presence of hepatitis B virus so as to replicate?
At what stage of alcoholic liver disease can the damage be reversed?
Although many factors may precipitate pancreatitis, the two major causes are:
Which factor(s) appear(s) to have a role in the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases?
Gastroesophageal reflux disease involves:
When a portion of the proximal stomach and the paraesophageal junction move above the diaphragm, this is called a:
Which of the following applies to gastric cancer?
Pancreatic cancer may be diagnosed early if obstruction of bile or pancreatic secretions develops when the tumor is located:
A gluten-free diet as required for the client with celiac disease means avoiding:
The telescoping of one section of bowel inside another section is called: