Quiz 16: Endocrine System Disorders

Pathophysiology for the Health Professions

Nursing
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Questions

Q1
Free

What kind of control mechanism is indicated when increased blood glucose levels stimulate increased secretion of insulin?

Multiple Choice
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A) Control by releasing hormones
B) Control by tropic hormones
C) Negative feedback control
D) Hypothalamus/hypophysis coordination
Answer:
C) Negative feedback control
Q2
Free

What is the most common cause of endocrine disorders?

Multiple Choice
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A) Malignant neoplasm
B) Infection
C) Congenital defect
D) Benign tumor
Answer:
D) Benign tumor
Q3
Free

Choose the statement that applies to type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Multiple Choice
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A) Onset often occurs during childhood.
B) Relative insufficiency of insulin or insulin resistance develops.
C) It can be treated by diet, weight control and exercise, or oral hypoglycemics.
D) Complications rarely occur.
Answer:
A) Onset often occurs during childhood.
Q4

Why does polyuria develop with diabetes mellitus?

Multiple Choice
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A) Increased thirst and hypoglycemia
B) Ketoacidosis
C) Osmotic pressure due to glucose
D) Diabetic nephropathy
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q5

What is the cause of diabetic ketoacidosis?

Multiple Choice
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A) Excess insulin in the body
B) Loss of glucose in the urine
C) Failure of the kidney to excrete sufficient acids
D) Increased catabolism of fats and proteins
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q6

What is a precipitating factor for diabetic ketoacidosis?

Multiple Choice
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A) Skipping a meal
B) Anorexia
C) Serious infection
D) Insulin overdose
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q7

Which of the following may cause insulin shock to develop?

Multiple Choice
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A) Strenuous exercise
B) Missing an insulin dose
C) Eating excessively large meals
D) Sedentary lifestyle
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q8

Which of the following indicates hypoglycemia in a diabetic?

Multiple Choice
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A) Deep, rapid respirations
B) Flushed dry skin and mucosa
C) Thirst and oliguria
D) Staggering gait, disorientation, and confusion
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q9

Which of the following are signs of diabetic ketoacidosis in an unconscious person?

Multiple Choice
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A) Pale moist skin
B) Thirst and poor skin turgor
C) Deep rapid respirations and fruity breath odor
D) Tremors and strong rapid pulse
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q10

Immediate treatment for insulin shock may include:

Multiple Choice
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A) administration of bicarbonates.
B) consumption of fruit juice or candy.
C) induced vomiting.
D) consumption of large amounts of water.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q11

What causes loss of consciousness in a person with diabetic ketoacidosis?

Multiple Choice
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A) Toxic effects of excessive insulin
B) Excessive glucose in the blood
C) Metabolic acidosis
D) Lack of glucose in brain cells
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q12

Which of the following does NOT usually develop as a complication of diabetes?

Multiple Choice
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A) Osteoporosis
B) Nephropathy
C) Impotence
D) Peripheral neuropathy
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q13

How do many oral hypoglycemic drugs act?

Multiple Choice
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A) To replace insulin in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
B) To transport glucose into body cells
C) To prevent gluconeogenesis
D) To stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q14

Diabetes may cause visual impairment through damage to the lens; this is referred to as:

Multiple Choice
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A) cataracts.
B) macular degeneration.
C) myopia.
D) strabismus.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q15

Which of the following applies to diabetic macro-angiography? 1. It affects the small arteries and arterioles. 2. It is related to elevated serum lipids. 3. It leads to increased risk of myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular disease. 4. It frequently causes damage to the kidneys.

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 3
B) 1, 4
C) 2, 3
D) 2, 4
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q16

Why is amputation frequently a necessity in diabetics?

Multiple Choice
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A) Necrosis and gangrene in the feet and legs
B) Lack of glucose to the cells in the feet and legs
C) Severe dehydration in the tissues
D) Elevated blood glucose increasing blood viscosity
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q17

A type of diabetes that may develop during pregnancy and disappear after delivery is called:

Multiple Choice
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A) temporary maternal diabetes.
B) fetal diabetes.
C) acute developmental diabetes.
D) gestational diabetes.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q18

Which one of the following develops hypoglycemia more frequently?

Multiple Choice
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A) Type 1 diabetic patients
B) Type 2 diabetic patients
C) Patients with a poor stress response
D) Patients with a regular exercise and meal plan
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q19

Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes Addisons disease?

Multiple Choice
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A) Increased glucocorticoids
B) Decreased glucocorticoids
C) Deficit of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
D) Deficit of T3 and T4
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q20

Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes myxedema?

Multiple Choice
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A) Increased glucocorticoids
B) Decreased glucocorticoids
C) Deficit of ADH
D) Deficit of T3 and T4
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q21

Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes diabetes insipidus?

Multiple Choice
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A) Increased insulin
B) Decreased glucocorticoids
C) Deficit of ADH
D) Deficit of T3 and T4
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q22

What is caused by hyperparathyroidism?

Multiple Choice
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A) Hypocalcemia
B) Tetany
C) Bone demineralization
D) Deficit of vitamin D
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q23

What is caused by hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism? 1. Skeletal muscle twitching or spasm 2. Weak cardiac contraction 3. Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) 4. Decreased serum phosphate level

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 2
B) 1, 3
C) 2, 3
D) 3, 4
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q24

Which of the following applies to acromegaly?

Multiple Choice
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A) It occurs in infants and children.
B) It causes excessive longitudinal bone growth.
C) It results from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH).
D) It does not change soft tissue growth.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q25

Which of the following may cause goiter? 1. Hyperthyroidism 2. Hypothyroidism 3. Lack of iodine in the diet 4. Pheochromocytoma

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 4
B) 2, 3
C) 1, 2, 3
D) 1, 2, 3, 4
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q26

Which signs are typical of Graves disease?

Multiple Choice
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A) Facial puffiness, bradycardia, and lethargy
B) Exophthalmos and tachycardia
C) delayed physical and intellectual development
D) Goiter and decreased basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q27

Characteristics of Cushings syndrome include all of the following EXCEPT:

Multiple Choice
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A) Heavy body and round face
B) Atrophied skeletal muscle in the limbs
C) Staring eyes with infrequent blinking
D) Atrophy of the lymph nodes
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q28

Which of the following is an effect of long-term glucocorticoid therapy?

Multiple Choice
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A) Decreased secretion from the adrenal cortex gland
B) An increased inflammatory response to irritants
C) Hypotension and poor circulation
D) Increased number of hypersensitivity reactions
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q29

Which of the following is an effect of Addisons disease?

Multiple Choice
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A) Elevated blood glucose levels
B) High blood pressure
C) Low serum potassium levels
D) Poor stress response
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q30

What is the most common cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus?

Multiple Choice
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A) Increased glucose production in the liver
B) Destruction of pancreatic cells by an autoimmune reaction
C) Increased resistance of body cells to insulin action
D) Chronic obesity
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q31

Why does glucosuria occur in diabetics?

Multiple Choice
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A) Excess ketoacids displace glucose into the filtrate.
B) Excess water in the filtrate draws more glucose into the urine.
C) The amount of glucose in the filtrate exceeds the renal tubule transport limit.
D) Sufficient insulin is not available for glucose reabsorption.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q32

Which of the following are common early signs of a pituitary adenoma? 1. Persistent headaches 2. Hemianopia 3. Hypertension 4. Papilledema

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 4
B) 2, 3
C) 1, 2
D) 1, 3, 4
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q33

Which of the following does NOT apply to inappropriate ADH syndrome?

Multiple Choice
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A) The cause is excess ADH secretion.
B) Severe hyponatremia results.
C) Excessive sodium is retained.
D) Fluid retention increases.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q34

What is/are the effect(s) of thyrotoxic crisis?

Multiple Choice
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A) Hyperthermia and heart failure
B) Hypotension and hypoglycemia
C) Toxic goiter and hypometabolism
D) Decreased stress response
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q35

Which of the following conditions may precipitate or exacerbate hyperglycemia?

Multiple Choice
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A) Hypothyroidism
B) Cushings disease
C) Addisons disease
D) Growth hormone deficit
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q36

Which of the following conditions may cause immunosuppression?

Multiple Choice
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A) Graves disease
B) Acromegaly
C) Cushings disease
D) Diabetes insipidus
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q37

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNC) more frequently develops in patients with:

Multiple Choice
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A) type 1 diabetes.
B) type 2 diabetes.
C) Graves disease.
D) hyperparathyroidism.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q38

Which of the following is recommended for immediate treatment of hypoglycemic shock? 1. If conscious, immediately give sweet fruit juice, honey, candy, or sugar. 2. If unconscious, give nothing by mouth (require intravenous glucose 50%). 3. Treat immediately with insulin. 4. Give large quantity of clear fluids for shock.

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 2
B) 1, 3
C) 2, 3
D) 1, 3, 4
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q39

All these tissues use glucose without the aid of insulin EXCEPT:

Multiple Choice
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A) liver.
B) digestive system.
C) exercising skeletal muscle.
D) brain.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q40

Differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes include which of the following?

Multiple Choice
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A) Type 1 diabetes weight gain is common, and type 2 weight loss often occurs.
B) Type 1 diabetes leads to fewer complications than does type 2 diabetes.
C) Type 1 diabetes may be controlled by adjusting dietary intake and exercise, but type 2 diabetes requires insulin replacement.
D) Type 1 diabetes occurs more frequently in children and adolescents, and type 2 diabetes occurs more often in adults.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q41

Complications of diabetes mellitus include:

Multiple Choice
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A) peripheral neuropathy.
B) frequent infections.
C) cataracts.
D) A, B, and C.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q42

Which of the following often causes hyperparathyroidism?

Multiple Choice
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A) A malignant tumor in the parathyroid glands
B) End-stage renal failure
C) Osteoporosis
D) Radiation involving the thyroid gland and neck area
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q43

Dwarfism is caused by:

Multiple Choice
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A) excessive levels of somatotropin (GH).
B) a deficit of somatotropin (GH).
C) excessive levels of insulin.
D) excessive levels of parathyroid hormone.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q44

Which of the following results from a deficit of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?

Multiple Choice
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A) Inappropriate ADH syndrome
B) Gigantism
C) Diabetes insipidus
D) Myxedema
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q45

Goiters occur more frequently in persons living in the:

Multiple Choice
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A) Great Lakes or mountainous regions.
B) southwest United States.
C) temperate regions.
D) areas bordering the oceans.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q46

Which of the following is caused by Graves disease?

Multiple Choice
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A) Hypermetabolism
B) Decreased size of thyroid gland
C) Bradycardia and hypothermia
D) Decreased blood levels of T3, T4, and TSH
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q47

Goiters may be caused by:

Multiple Choice
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A) hypothyroid conditions only.
B) either hypothyroid or hyperthyroid conditions.
C) hyperthyroid conditions only.
D) fungal infections such as candidiasis.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q48

Severe impairment of all aspects of growth and development, including difficulty feeding, mental retardation, and stunted skeletal growth, are associated with:

Multiple Choice
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A) myxedema.
B) Cushings syndrome.
C) diabetes insipidus.
D) cretinism.
E) Graves disease.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q49

A benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine is called:

Multiple Choice
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A) pheochromocytoma.
B) Cushings syndrome.
C) Graves disease.
D) Addisons disease.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q50

The anterior pituitary gland secretes all of the following hormones EXCEPT:

Multiple Choice
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A) prolactin (PRL).
B) glucagon.
C) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
D) growth hormone (GH).
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q51

Which of the following applies to oxytocin? 1. It stimulates contraction of the uterus after delivery. 2. It stimulates ejection of breast milk during lactation. 3. It stimulates mammary gland production of milk. 4. It is released from the adenohypophysis.

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 2
B) 1, 4
C) 1, 3, 4
D) 1, 2, 3, 4
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q52

Which of the following is a major function of the hormone norepinephrine?

Multiple Choice
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A) Inhibition of an excessive stress response
B) Visceral and cutaneous vasoconstriction
C) Increased force of heart contraction
D) Vasodilation in skeletal muscle
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q53

Early signs of hyperglycemia include polyphagia, which means:

Multiple Choice
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A) thirst.
B) increased urine output.
C) hunger.
D) glucose in the urine.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q54

Which of the following hormones is involved in both the stress response and the anti-inflammatory response?

Multiple Choice
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A) Aldosterone
B) Norepinephrine
C) Thyroxine
D) Cortisol
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q55

Polydipsia occurs with diabetes mellitus when:

Multiple Choice
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A) lack of insulin causes hunger.
B) ketone levels rise in the blood.
C) polyuria causes dehydration.
D) glucosuria causes ketoacidosis.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q56

Metabolic syndrome is marked by:

Multiple Choice
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A) abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism.
B) periodic hypotension.
C) deficit of glucagon.
D) early onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q57

Compensation mechanisms occurring in the early stage of diabetic ketoacidosis include:

Multiple Choice
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A) Kussmauls respirations.
B) polydipsia.
C) ketonuria.
D) seizures.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q58

Which of the following may occur with a pituitary adenoma?

Multiple Choice
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A) Low blood pressure and bradycardia
B) Headache and seizures
C) Vomiting and diarrhea
D) Loss of vision in one eye
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q59

Which of the following may cause hypertension?

Multiple Choice
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A) Hypoparathyroidism
B) Hypoglycemia
C) Pheochromocytoma
D) Addisons disease
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q60

Catabolic effects of Cushings syndrome include:

Multiple Choice
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A) osteoporosis.
B) hypertension.
C) increased erythrocyte production.
D) moon face and buffalo hump.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q61

Blood glucose levels are increased by: 1. glucocorticoids. 2. glucagon. 3. epinephrine. 4. norepinephrine. 5. parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 2
B) 1, 2, 3
C) 2, 4, 5
D) 1, 3, 4, 5
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q62

Which of the following are likely present in a patient immobilized for a long period of time?

Multiple Choice
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A) Hypocalcemia and low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels
B) Hypocalcemia and high serum PTH levels
C) Hypercalcemia and low serum PTH levels
D) Hypercalcemia and high serum PTH levels
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q63

Which of the following may cause high serum levels of parathyroid hormone?

Multiple Choice
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A) Hypoparathyroidism
B) Chronic renal failure
C) Hypercalcemia
D) Adenoma in the thyroid gland
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q64

Diabetic retinopathy results from:

Multiple Choice
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A) degeneration of large blood vessels supplying the eye.
B) abnormal metabolism in the lens of the eye.
C) neuropathy affecting the optic nerve.
D) obstruction or rupture of retinal blood vessels.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q65

Why does hypocalcemia cause tetany?

Multiple Choice
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A) Skeletal muscle contractions are weaker.
B) Nerves to skeletal muscle are more excitable.
C) Calcium is not stored in skeletal muscle cells.
D) Serum phosphate levels are low.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

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