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Which cells are required to process and present antigens from foreign material as the initial step in the immune response?
Humoral immunity is mediated by:
A secondary immune response differs from the primary immune response in that:
Which type of immunity is provided by a vaccination?
When an allergen binds with IgE antibodies on mast cells, resulting in release of chemical mediators, this reaction is called:
Which statement applies to contact dermatitis?
Which of the following causes anaphylaxis?
Following a positive HIV antibodies blood test and ELISA test, what is the test commonly used for confirmation?
Incompatible blood transfusions result in:
Systemic lupus erythematosus is caused by:
Distinguishing clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus include:
Which of the following are the target cells for HIV?
A diagnosis of HIV positive means that:
Immunodeficiencies may result in an increased risk of infections by normally harmless microorganisms. These infections are referred to as:
Serious infections frequently occurring in patients with AIDS include: 1. tuberculosis. 2. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. 3. influenza. 4. tetanus.
Which of the following statements does NOT apply to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins or molecules?
CD4-positive helper T cells function by:
Which of the following complications does NOT occur frequently in AIDS patients?
Which of the following characteristics apply to HIV? 1. It contains two strands of DNA. 2. It tends to mutate frequently to form new strains. 3. The incubation period is extremely short. 4. It is inactivated by heat and many disinfectants.
In cases of HIV infection, the window period refers to the time between:
Which of the following is an effect of cytokines? They:
What does seroconversion mean in relation to HIV and AIDS?
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding a patient who is HIV positive?
Which of the following statements applies to the complement system?
Which of the following statements regarding immunoglobulins is TRUE?
Which of the following is NOT a cause of immunodeficiency?
Which statement is TRUE regarding infants born to HIV-infected mothers?
The most common cause of death in patients who have AIDS is: