Quiz 10: Blood and Circulatory System Disorders

Pathophysiology for the Health Professions

Nursing
48
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Questions

Q1
Free

Which of the following would result from a reduced number of erythrocytes in the blood?

Multiple Choice
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A) Increased hemoglobin in the blood
B) Decreased hematocrit
C) Increased risk of hemostasis
D) Decreased osmotic pressure of the blood
Answer:
B) Decreased hematocrit
Q2
Free

What term is used to describe a deficit of all types of blood cells?

Multiple Choice
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A) Leucopenia
B) Neutropenia
C) Pancytopenia
D) Erythrocytosis
Answer:
C) Pancytopenia
Q3
Free

Capillary walls consist of:

Multiple Choice
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A) multiple endothelial layers.
B) a thick layer of smooth muscle.
C) two or three epithelial layers.
D) a single endothelial layer.
Answer:
D) a single endothelial layer.
Q4

Vitamin K is required by the liver to synthesize:

Multiple Choice
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A) heparin.
B) prothrombin.
C) amino acids.
D) bilirubin.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q5

Individuals with type O blood are considered to be universal donors because their blood:

Multiple Choice
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A) contains A and B antibodies.
B) contains A and B antigens.
C) lacks A and B antibodies.
D) lacks A and B antigens.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q6

What are the two circulations that comprise the overall circulatory system?

Multiple Choice
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A) Pulmonary and systemic circulations
B) Peripheral and central circulations
C) Cardiovascular and lymphatic circulations
D) Cardiopulmonary and peripheral circulations
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q7

Chronic blood loss causes anemia because of the:

Multiple Choice
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A) shortened life span of the erythrocytes.
B) lower metabolic rate.
C) loss of protein and electrolytes.
D) smaller amount of recycled iron available.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q8

What is the cause of sickle cell anemia?

Multiple Choice
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A) A defective gene inherited from both parents
B) A chronic bacterial infection
C) Bone marrow depression
D) An autoimmune reaction
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q9

Which of the following best describes the characteristic erythrocyte associated with pernicious anemia?

Multiple Choice
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A) Hypochromic, microcytic
B) Normochromic, normocytic
C) Elongated, sickle-shaped
D) Megaloblastic or macrocytic nucleated cells
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q10

What causes numbness and tingling in the fingers of individuals with untreated pernicious anemia?

Multiple Choice
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A) Persistent hyperbilirubinemia
B) Increasing acidosis affecting metabolism
C) Vitamin B12 deficit causing peripheral nerve demyelination
D) Multiple small vascular occlusions affecting peripheral nerves
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q11

Jaundice is one typical sign of:

Multiple Choice
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A) sickle cell anemia.
B) aplastic anemia.
C) iron deficiency anemia.
D) acute leukemia.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q12

What are the typical early general signs and symptoms of anemia?

Multiple Choice
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A) Chest pain, palpitations
B) Jaundice, stomatitis
C) Pallor, dyspnea, and fatigue
D) Bradycardia, heat intolerance
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q13

What is the cause of oral ulcerations and delayed healing occurring with any severe anemia?

Multiple Choice
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A) Lack of folic acid for DNA synthesis
B) Frequent microinfarcts in the tissues
C) Deficit of oxygen for epithelial cell mitosis and metabolism
D) Elevated bilirubin levels in blood and body fluids
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q14

Which of the following is present with pernicious anemia?

Multiple Choice
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A) Pancytopenia
B) Hypochlorhydria
C) Leukocytosis
D) Multiple infarcts
Answer:

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Q15

Why is pernicious anemia treated with injections of vitamin B12?

Multiple Choice
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A) An immune reaction in the stomach would destroy the vitamin.
B) Digestive enzymes would destroy the vitamin.
C) The vitamin irritates the gastric mucosa.
D) The ingested vitamin would not be absorbed into the blood.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q16

Why do abnormally low hemoglobin values develop with pernicious anemia?

Multiple Choice
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A) Decreased production of erythrocytes
B) Shorter life span of erythrocytes
C) Abnormal structure of hemoglobin chains
D) Deficit of folic acid
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q17

What are the common early signs of aplastic anemia?

Multiple Choice
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A) Painful joints and skeletal deformity
B) Abdominal discomfort and splenomegaly
C) Excessive bleeding and recurrent infections
D) Palpitations and chest pain
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q18

Why do vascular occlusions and infarcts occur frequently with sickle cell anemia?

Multiple Choice
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A) The red blood cells are abnormally large.
B) Increased hemolysis of erythrocytes occurs.
C) Erythrocytes change to sickle shape when hypoxia occurs.
D) HbS is unable to transport oxygen.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q19

Which of the following applies to sickle cell trait?

Multiple Choice
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A) Most hemoglobin is in the form of HgS
B) Sickling of erythrocytes occurs with severe hypoxia.
C) Painful sickling crises with multiple infarctions occur frequently.
D) A childs skeletal growth is delayed.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q20

What is the basic abnormality in thalassemia?

Multiple Choice
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A) Several amino acids in the globin chains have been replaced by substitute amino acids.
B) More than four globin chains are found in the erythrocytes.
C) The iron molecule is displaced in hemoglobin.
D) There is failure to synthesize either the alpha or beta chains in the hemoglobin molecule.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q21

Which of the following can result from a malabsorption problem?

Multiple Choice
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A) Aplastic anemia
B) Sickle cell anemia
C) Thalassemia major
D) Pernicious anemia
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q22

In individuals with pernicious anemia, antibodies form to:

Multiple Choice
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A) vitamin B12.
B) intrinsic factor or parietal cells.
C) mucus-producing glands.
D) hydrochloric acid.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q23

In cases of polycythemia vera, blood pressure is elevated as a result of:

Multiple Choice
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A) increased blood volume.
B) frequent infarcts in the coronary circulation.
C) congested spleen and bone marrow.
D) increased renin and aldosterone secretions.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q24

Petechiae and purpura are common signs of:

Multiple Choice
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A) excessive hemolysis.
B) leucopenia.
C) increased bleeding.
D) hemoglobin deficit.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q25

Which statement applies to the disorder hemophilia A?

Multiple Choice
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A) It is transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait.
B) There is usually a total lack of factor VIII in the blood.
C) Males and females can be carriers.
D) Hematomas and hemarthroses are common.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q26

Which of the following occurs when disseminated intravascular coagulation develops?

Multiple Choice
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A) Increased thrombocytes and blood clotting
B) Hemolysis with loss of blood cells
C) Massive sepsis and hemorrhage
D) Multiple thrombi and deficit of clotting factors
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q27

Which of the following substances acts as an anticoagulant?

Multiple Choice
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A) Prothrombin
B) Heparin
C) Fibrinogen
D) Vitamin K
Answer:

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Q28

In individuals with acute leukemia, the increased number of malignant leukocytes leads to: 1. decreased hemoglobin. 2. thrombocytopenia. 3. bone pain with increased activity. 4. splenomegaly.

Multiple Choice
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A) 1, 3
B) 1, 2, 4
C) 2, 3, 4
D) 1, 2, 3, 4
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q29

Multiple opportunistic infections develop with acute leukemia primarily because:

Multiple Choice
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A) the number of white blood cells is decreased.
B) many circulating leukocytes are immature.
C) severe anemia interferes with the immune response.
D) decreased appetite and nutritional intake reduce natural defenses.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q30

Why is excessive bleeding a common occurrence with acute leukemia?

Multiple Choice
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A) Deficit of calcium ions
B) Impaired production of prothrombin and fibrinogen
C) Decreased platelets
D) Dysfunctional thrombocytes
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q31

Predisposing factors to leukemia commonly include:

Multiple Choice
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A) exposure to radiation.
B) certain fungal and protozoal infections.
C) familial tendency.
D) cigarette smoking.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q32

Von Willebrand disease is caused by:

Multiple Choice
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A) defective erythrocytes that become deformed in shape, causing occlusions.
B) excessive lymphocytes that do not mature.
C) absence of a clotting factor that helps platelets clump and stick.
D) a lack of hemoglobin due to iron deficiency.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q33

Thrombophilia can result in conditions such as:

Multiple Choice
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A) severe chronic kidney disease.
B) peripheral vascular disease.
C) deficient calcium levels in the long bones.
D) excessive bleeding of hematomas.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q34

Multiple myeloma is a malignant tumor involving:

Multiple Choice
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A) plasma cells.
B) granulocytes.
C) bone cells.
D) lymph nodes.
Answer:

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Q35

What is the primary treatment for the leukemias?

Multiple Choice
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A) Radiation
B) Chemotherapy
C) Surgery
D) Immunotherapy
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q36

Which of the following statements applies to hemochromatosis. It is:

Multiple Choice
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A) caused by excessive iron intake in the diet.
B) results from excessive hemolysis of RBCs.
C) a metabolic error that leads to excess amounts of hemosiderin, causing damage to organs.
D) an inherited defect that results in abnormal hemoglobin.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q37

Thalassemia is caused by:

Multiple Choice
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A) a defect in one or more genes for hemoglobin.
B) an abnormal form of heme.
C) abnormal liver production of amino acids and iron.
D) overproduction of hypochromic, microcytic RBCs.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q38

Secondary polycythemia may be associated with:

Multiple Choice
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A) frequent angina attacks.
B) certain types of anemia.
C) severe chronic bronchitis.
D) renal disease.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q39

Leukemia is sometimes linked to chromosome abnormalities, as evidenced by:

Multiple Choice
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A) the presence of Philadelphia chromosome translocation in cases of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
B) very low incidence in persons with Down syndrome.
C) little evidence of familial incidence.
D) transmission as a recessive gene.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q40

Iron deficiency anemia frequently results from any of the following EXCEPT:

Multiple Choice
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A) certain vegetarian diets.
B) excessive menstrual flow.
C) malabsorption syndromes.
D) diabetes mellitus.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q41

Which of the following applies to the leukemias?

Multiple Choice
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A) Chronic leukemias are more common in older people.
B) AML is the most common childhood leukemia.
C) Exposure to chemicals is not considered a predisposing factor.
D) Lymphoid tissue produces abnormal leukocytes.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q42

A high percentage of blast cells in the leukocyte population indicates a poor prognosis for an individual with:

Multiple Choice
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A) thalassemia.
B) acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
C) myelodysplastic syndrome.
D) multiple myeloma.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q43

Which of the following applies to erythropoietin?

Multiple Choice
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A) It is produced by the liver.
B) It increases iron absorption for heme production.
C) It stimulates production of red blood cells.
D) Hypoxia stimulates the red bone marrow to produce erythropoietin.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q44

Which of the following diagnostic tests would be within the normal range for an individual with hemophilia A?

Multiple Choice
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A) Bleeding time
B) Coagulation time
C) PTT time
D) Prothrombin time
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q45

Which of the following applies to the condition disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)?

Multiple Choice
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A) It is usually a secondary complication.
B) It is always initiated by excessive bleeding.
C) It results in an inability of platelets to adhere.
D) It is not life threatening.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q46

In which blood dyscrasia does pancytopenia develop?

Multiple Choice
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A) Pernicious anemia
B) Aplastic anemia
C) Iron deficiency anemia
D) Sickle cell anemia
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q47

Which of the following applies to the etiology of aplastic anemia? It is:

Multiple Choice
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A) idiopathic in many cases.
B) a genetic disorder.
C) predisposed by exposure to myelotoxins.
D) Both A and C.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

Q48

Microcytic and hypochromic erythrocytes are commonly found as a result of:

Multiple Choice
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A) iron deficiency anemia.
B) polycythemia.
C) disseminated intravascular coagulation.
D) hemophilia A.
Answer:

A) You need to subscribe to get the answer.

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