Dosage Calculation of Intravenous Solutions and Drugs

Understanding Pharmacology Essentials for Medication Safety

Nursing
16
Questions
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True/False
13
Choices
3
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Questions

Q1
Free

What is the most important advantage for intravenous (IV) infusion of drugs?

Multiple Choice
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A) Anyone can administer IV drugs.
B) The drug reaches the bloodstream immediately.
C) Drugs given intravenously cost less than drugs given orally.
D) The patient is not required to be alert to swallow the drug.
Answer:
B) The drug reaches the bloodstream immediately.

Explanation:
Drugs administered by IV infusion are immediately in the bloodstream and reach their target tissues fastest. This means that both the drug benefits (intended actions) and any adverse actions can happen more quickly. IV drugs tend to cost more than oral drugs. Although the patient does not have to be alert to receive IV drugs, it is not their main advantage. Administering IV drugs can only be performed by a skilled health care provider.
Q2
Free

How does the drop factor affect IV infusions?

Multiple Choice
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A) Fluid with a larger drop factor infuses more slowly than fluid with a smaller drop factor.
B) Smaller drop factors occur with smaller needles (or cannulas) and larger drop factors occur with larger needles.
C) The smaller the drop factor, the fewer the number of drops needed to administer 1 mL of infusion fluid.
D) The larger the drop factor, the fewer the number of drops needed to administer 1 mL of infusion fluid.
Answer:
D) The larger the drop factor, the fewer the number of drops needed to administer 1 mL of infusion fluid.

Explanation:
The drop factor is the number of drops (gtt) needed to make 1 mL of IV fluid. The larger the drop, the fewer drops needed to make 1 mL.
Q3
Free

A patient is to receive 1000 mL intravenously of dextrose 5% in lactated Ringers solution in 8 hours. When the nurse checks the intravenous (IV) bag after 2 hours, 700 mL remain in the bag. How many milliliters have already infused?

Multiple Choice
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A) 100
B) 300
C) 700
D) 1000
Answer:
B) 300

Explanation:
The amount infused is equal to the starting amount (1000 mL) minus the amount remaining in the IV bag or other container (700 mL). 1000 700 = 300 mL have infused.
Q4

A patient is to receive 125 mL of intravenous fluid per hour and the drop factor is 10 gtt per mL. The nurse counts the 15-second drip rate to be 8 gtt per minute. What is the nurses best action?

Multiple Choice
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A) Nothing, the IV flow rate is correct.
B) Turn the rate down to 5 gtt/15 seconds.
C) Turn the rate up to 11 gtt/15 seconds.
D) Turn the rate up to 15 gtt/15 seconds.
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Q5

How is extravasation different from infiltration?

Multiple Choice
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A) Infiltration occurs in the hand, whereas extravasation occurs in the arm.
B) Both conditions lead to swelling, but extravasation causes tissue damage.
C) Infiltration is swelling accompanied by pain, whereas extravasation is not painful.
D) Extravasation causes phlebitis along with tissue swelling, whereas infiltration causes fluid overload along with swelling.
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Q6

An IV infusion order for a patient reads 1000 mL dextrose 5% in normal saline intravenously, immediately. What additional information does the nurse ask the prescriber to provide?

Multiple Choice
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A) Drip rate
B) Drop factor
C) Duration
D) Start time
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Q7

Which precaution is most important for the nurse to teach a patient who is receiving intravenous (IV) drug therapy?

Multiple Choice
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A) Turn on your call light if the IV machine starts to beep for any reason.
B) Do not use the arm that has the IV running in it for any reason whatsoever.
C) Call me immediately if you start to feel any pain or burning in the arm with the IV.
D) If you think the IV is running too slowly, just push the up-arrow button on the machine once or twice.
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Q8

While examining a patients peripheral intravenous (IV) site, the nurse observes a red streak along the length of the vein. On palpation, the vein feels hard and cordlike. What is the nurses best action?

Multiple Choice
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A) Check for a blood return and notify the prescriber.
B) Discontinue the infusion and remove the IV needle.
C) Apply ice packs to the vein and continue the infusion.
D) Change the IV fluid to normal saline and redress the site.
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Q9

Which problem is a major disadvantage of an intravenous (IV) pump?

Multiple Choice
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A) The alarms are so sensitive that nurses tend to ignore them when they sound frequently.
B) Patients and families can override the automatic features and reset the infusion rate.
C) It can run away and cause a patient to experience fluid overload.
D) It can continue to push fluid into the tissue when infiltration occurs.
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Q10

The intravenous (IV) site of a patient who has been receiving IV therapy for 2 days is red and has a small amount of pus oozing from around the needle. What is the nurses best action?

Multiple Choice
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A) Document the finding as an expected response to long-term IV therapy as the only action.
B) Immediately notify the prescriber to get an order to discontinue the IV therapy.
C) Use an iodine solution to clean the site and replace the dressing.
D) Discontinue the IV therapy and notify the prescriber.
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Q11

A patient is receiving an intravenous (IV) infusion of solution containing 60 mEq/L of potassium chloride. Which nursing action allows early detection of complications common to this therapy?

Multiple Choice
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A) Lowering the IV bag below the level of the IV site to obtain a blood return
B) Palpating the vein above the IV site in which the cannula is placed
C) Placing a light source on the tissue around the IV site
D) Checking the pulse distal (lower than) to the IV
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Q12

A patient is prescribed 25 mg by intravenous (IV) push of a drug that is a known chemical irritant. The drug vial contains 100 mg/mL of the drug. To reduce the risk for chemical trauma when administering this drug, what is the nurses best action?

Multiple Choice
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A) Immediately after injecting the drug by IV push, apply firm pressure over the site for 1 minute.
B) Dilute the drug with 9.75 mL of an appropriate solution before administration.
C) Apply a cold compress to the IV site for 10 minutes before administering the drug.
D) Apply a cold compress to the IV site for 10 minutes after administering the drug.
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Q13

An 82-year-old patient returns to the floor after being gone for 1 hour for an x-ray examination. On return, the nurse notes that 700 mL of fluid have infused during the last hour and the patient is short of breath. What is the nurses best action?

Multiple Choice
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A) Check the intravenous (IV) site and document the findings.
B) Slow the IV rate and notify the prescriber immediately.
C) Discontinue the IV therapy and notify the prescriber immediately.
D) Notify the prescriber and ask whether the IV therapy should be discontinued.
Answer:

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Q14

What is the hourly flow rate for 250 mL of normal saline to be administered over 2 hours? _____ mL/hour

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Q15

A patient is to receive 1000 mL of D5W intravenously over 6 hours. The nurse selects a tubing set with a drop factor of 15 gtt/mL. How many drops per minute are needed to infuse this fluid in the prescribed time? _____ gtt per minute

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Q16

A patient is to receive 100 mL of normal saline over the next 5 hours with microdrip tubing. How many drops per minute does the nurse administer to infuse this fluid in the prescribed time? _____ gtt per minute

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