Vitamins

Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy

Nursing
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Questions

Q1
Free

For a compound to be classified as a vitamin, it must

Multiple Choice
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A) be synthesized by the body.
B) be required in large quantities.
C) perform a vital function.
D) be water soluble.
Answer:
C) perform a vital function.

Explanation:

For a compound to be defined as a vitamin, it must be a vital, organic, dietary substance that is not a carbohydrate, fat, protein, or mineral and is necessary in only very small amounts to perform a specific metabolic function or prevent an associated deficiency. It also cannot be manufactured by the body in sufficient amounts to sustain life and must be supplemented by the body.

Q2
Free

A vitamin that behaves more like a hormone than a vitamin is vitamin

Multiple Choice
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A) A.
B) D.
C) E.
D) K.
Answer:
B) D.

Explanation:

Vitamin D is a prohormone made in the skin by sunlight.

Q3
Free

The provitamin form of vitamin A that is found in plant pigments is

Multiple Choice
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A) beta-carotene.
B) chlorophyll.
C) beta-xanthophyll.
D) calciferol.
Answer:
A) beta-carotene.

Explanation:

Beta-carotene is the provitamin form of vitamin A found in plant pigments. The body converts it to vitamin A, making it a primary source of the vitamin.

Q4

Spinach, carrots, and sweet potatoes are good sources of

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A) beta-carotene.
B) vitamin A.
C) vitamin D.
D) vitamin E.
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Q5

Liver is a rich source of

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A) vitamin A (retinol).
B) vitamin C.
C) vitamin D.
D) vitamin E.
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Q6

An important function of vitamin A is to

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A) be incorporated into the bile.
B) help with blood clotting.
C) act as an antioxidant.
D) help form rhodopsin in the eye.
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Q7

A deficiency of vitamin A may result in

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A) osteoporosis.
B) bile obstruction.
C) breakdown of cell membranes.
D) night blindness.
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Q8

Fish liver oils are a good source of

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A) vitamin D.
B) vitamin E.
C) protein.
D) iron.
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Q9

The active hormonal form of vitamin D is

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A) cholecalciferol.
B) calciferol.
C) calcitriol.
D) calcitonin.
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Q10

Two foods that are commonly fortified with vitamin D are

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A) cereals and macaroni products.
B) milk and margarine.
C) flour and salt.
D) vegetable oils and shortenings.
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Q11

Synthesis of the active hormonal form of vitamin D is the result of the combined action of the

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A) skin, liver, and kidney.
B) pancreas, thyroid, and liver.
C) skin, skeleton, and liver.
D) kidney, skeleton, and liver.
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Q12

The last organ involved in the production of the physiologically active form of vitamin D is the

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A) liver.
B) kidney.
C) intestine.
D) skin.
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Q13

The primary function of vitamin D is to regulate the absorption and metabolism of the minerals

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A) sodium and potassium.
B) iron and phosphorus.
C) calcium and phosphorus.
D) sodium and calcium.
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Q14

A vitamin D deficiency in growing children that results in the malformation of skeletal tissue, especially the long bones, is referred to as

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A) rickets.
B) scurvy.
C) pellagra.
D) beriberi.
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Q15

Recommended intakes for vitamin D are difficult to establish because

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A) exposure to sunlight varies.
B) it is present in so many foods.
C) the body stores such large amounts.
D) the amount in food varies with the season.
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Q16

A toxic level of vitamin D is most likely to result in

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A) liver damage.
B) hyperpigmentation.
C) blindness.
D) calcification of soft tissues.
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Q17

Sunflower oil is a rich source of

Multiple Choice
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A) vitamin A.
B) vitamin B.
C) vitamin D.
D) vitamin E.
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Q18

The requirement for vitamin E varies by the amount of an individuals

Multiple Choice
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A) sun exposure.
B) dietary selenium.
C) animal fat intake.
D) polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.
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Q19

Vitamin E protects membranes because it acts as a(n)

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A) barrier.
B) peroxide.
C) antioxidant.
D) clotting factor.
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Q20

The fat-soluble vitamin responsible for the synthesis of blood-clotting factors by the liver is vitamin

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A) A.
B) D.
C) E.
D) K.
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Q21

A good food source of vitamin K is

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A) spinach.
B) sunflower oil.
C) pork.
D) oranges.
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Q22

In the past, vitamin A content was listed in International Units (IU); it is now listed in

Multiple Choice
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A) milligrams.
B) micrograms.
C) beta-carotene equivalents.
D) retinol equivalents.
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Q23

The hormones that participate in calcium metabolism are

Multiple Choice
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A) estrogen and oxytocin.
B) cortisone and epinephrine.
C) aldosterone and thyroxine.
D) parathyroid and calcitriol.
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Q24

There is a metabolic partnership between vitamin E and

Multiple Choice
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A) zinc.
B) chromium.
C) selenium.
D) iron.
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Q25

An athlete who increases his or her intake of pasta will also increase his or her need for

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A) folic acid.
B) thiamin.
C) pyridoxine.
D) vitamin C.
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Q26

An alcoholic is most likely to be deficient in

Multiple Choice
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A) biotin.
B) folic acid.
C) thiamin.
D) pyridoxine.
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Q27

The three body systems that can be affected by a thiamin deficiency are the _____ systems.

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A) nervous, respiratory, and urinary
B) nervous, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal
C) gastrointestinal, respiratory, and endocrine
D) lymphatic, cardiovascular, and endocrine
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Q28

The vitamin that is destroyed by light is

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A) vitamin C.
B) niacin.
C) riboflavin.
D) biotin.
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Q29

The most important source of riboflavin is

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A) milk.
B) lean meats.
C) enriched grains.
D) green leafy vegetables.
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Q30

The function of all B-complex vitamins is to

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A) regulate fluid balance.
B) function as body structures.
C) function as coenzymes.
D) provide calories for energy.
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Q31

The disease associated with niacin deficiency is

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A) anemia.
B) cheilosis.
C) pellagra.
D) beriberi.
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Q32

The amino acid that can be converted to niacin in the body is

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A) leucine.
B) phenylalanine.
C) tryptophan.
D) valine.
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Q33

A good food source of niacin is

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A) a banana.
B) a tomato.
C) beef.
D) oatmeal.
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Q34

The vitamin most closely associated with protein metabolism is

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A) thiamin.
B) pyridoxine.
C) folic acid.
D) choline.
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Q35

Which of the following diets can help ensure adequate and balanced vitamin intake?

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A) a high-calorie diet composed of mainly fruits and vegetables
B) a high-protein diet concentrating on red meat and fish
C) a varied diet composed of all food groups eaten in controlled portions
D) a varied diet with a higher emphasis on grains and fish
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Q36

The person most at risk for vitamin D deficiency is a

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A) 12-year-old girl who plays soccer at the local playground twice a week.
B) 28-year-old mother who breastfeeds her 5-month-old infant and takes a daily stroll in the neighborhood.
C) 62-year-old woman who lives in a cold climate and rarely goes outdoors.
D) 42-year-old man who plays golf once a week.
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Q37

The best food source of folic acid is

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A) grapefruit.
B) chicken.
C) cheese.
D) broccoli.
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Q38

A folic acid deficiency induces a form of anemia called _____ anemia.

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A) microcytic
B) megaloblastic
C) pernicious
D) aplastic
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Q39

The B vitamin predominantly found in foods of animal origin is

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A) pantothenic acid.
B) niacin.
C) thiamin.
D) cobalamin.
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Q40

Vitamin C deficiency is associated with

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A) scurvy.
B) beriberi.
C) pernicious anemia.
D) megaloblastic anemia.
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Q41

A 62-year-old woman who smokes one pack of cigarettes a day and whose food intake records reveal a minimal intake of vitamin C foods may be at risk for

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A) easy bruising and pinpoint hemorrhages.
B) cracked and bleeding lips.
C) fevers and infections.
D) neurologic disorders.
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Q42

An example of a meal high in vitamin C is

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A) bacon, lettuce, and tomato sandwich and strawberries.
B) hamburger, french fries, and salad.
C) pasta salad, whole-grain roll, and apple.
D) nachos with refried beans and salsa.
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Q43

Phytochemicals act as

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A) vitamins and minerals.
B) cofactors and enzymes.
C) antioxidants and hormones.
D) antibiotics and antifungals.
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Q44

Foods rich in phytochemicals include

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A) mushrooms and algae.
B) fruits and vegetables.
C) yogurt and goats milk.
D) soy milk and tofu.
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Q45

A young woman who is interested in becoming pregnant should be counseled on healthy eating choices, especially regarding folate-containing foods, which may help prevent

Multiple Choice
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A) neural tube defects.
B) osteomalacia.
C) pernicious anemia.
D) aplastic anemia.
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