Quiz 21: The Progressive Era

America, Past and Present

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Questions

Q1
Free

Theodore Roosevelt resigned from his position as _________ to organize the Rough Riders.

Multiple Choice
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A) vice president
B) secretary of defense
C) assistant secretary of defense
D) secretary of the navy
E) assistant secretary of the navy
Answer:
E) assistant secretary of the navy
Q2
Free

For many political and religious leaders, expansion ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) meant the demise of the American system
B) would threaten the purity of the Anglo-Saxon race
C) would put the United States into direct conflict with European nations
D) was necessary for sustained economic growth
E) went against the ideals of Christianity and American democracy
Answer:
D) was necessary for sustained economic growth
Q3
Free

Josiah Strong ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) fostered the concept of the divine support for expansion
B) believed that only missionary work should be done overseas
C) had little regard for the theories of Charles Darwin
D) hindered American expansion through his religious teachings
E) thought foreign trade was unimportant to the United States
Answer:
A) fostered the concept of the divine support for expansion
Q4

William Seward's foreign policy included ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) avoiding entangling foreign alliances
B) concentrating on promoting trade and commerce
C) alliances with major European powers
D) the United States' domination of the Americas
E) a focus on Mexico, excluding Canada
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Q5

James G. Blaine's greatest diplomatic success was ________.

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A) the purchase of Alaska
B) securing home rule for Canada
C) settling the Alabama claims with Britain
D) paving the way for the Pan-American Union
E) averting a war with Britain over Venezuela
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Q6

In response to the successful American revolt in Hawaii in 1893, Grover Cleveland ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) immediately annexed the islands
B) restored the queen to power
C) apologized to the Hawaiian people
D) refused to recognize the new government
E) tried, but failed, to restore the queen to power
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Q7

After 1890, the U.S. Navy's building program ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) was sharply curtailed to help balance the federal budget
B) began to concentrate on fast, lightly armored commerce raiders
C) began to emphasize static, coastal defenses over building ships
D) shifted to the construction of a battleship navy with offensive power
E) started using steel steamships instead of sailing vessels
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Q8

According to the theories of Alfred Thayer Mahan, ________.

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A) large armies would protect American interests around the globe
B) American greatness would be recognized by its industrial output
C) little would be gained from American expansion abroad
D) a strong navy was an integral part of America's wealth and power
E) standing armies were dangerous and expensive
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Q9

One consequence of General Weyler's policy in Cuba was ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) the generation of public sympathy for the Cuban people among Americans
B) a quick ending to the Cuban rebellion
C) strong support for Spain from the American government
D) an alliance between Cuban rebels and the American government
E) the end of "reconcentration" as a policy
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Q10

By late 1897, Spain was ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) unwilling to meet any American demands
B) backing off from its harsh policy in Cuba
C) directing the polices of General Weyler
D) determined to maintain control at all costs
E) willing to free Cuba rather than go to war
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Q11

At the outset of the Spanish-American War, ________.

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A) there was little public support for the war in the United States
B) the American military was well prepared to fight a war
C) it was difficult to find the necessary volunteers for the American military
D) the army signed up as many as a million volunteers
E) the American army was 200,000 soldiers strong
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Q12

During the Spanish-American War, African Americans in the military ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) found segregation and discrimination similar to civilian life
B) were treated as equals and given opportunities for advancement
C) had little opportunity to distinguish themselves in battle
D) were able to pressure the government for civil rights reforms
E) were never allowed to assume command positions
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Q13

The term "smoked Yankee" in the Spanish-American War referred to ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) northern artillery units
B) African-American infantry regiments
C) guerrilla fighters in Cuba
D) Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders
E) members of integrated units
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Q14

The actions of Commodore Dewey in the Philippines ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) had little effect on the outcome of the war
B) disproved Mahan's theories regarding naval supremacy
C) provided the United States with an unexpected prize of war
D) showed the surprising strength of the Spanish fleet
E) were undeniably illegal, even if effective
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Q15

Which territory caused the most debate about the merits of the United States acquiring an empire?

Multiple Choice
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A) Guam
B) Hawaii
C) Puerto Rico
D) the Philippines
E) the Dominican Republic
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Q16

Which of the following individuals ultimately supported the annexation of the Philippines?

Multiple Choice
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A) Jane Addams
B) Andrew Carnegie
C) William Jennings Bryan
D) William McKinley
E) Samuel Gompers
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Q17

The Philippine-American War was ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) a minor event for Americans
B) more costly than the Spanish-American War
C) fought in a traditional manner
D) never completely resolved
E) over even before the Spanish-American War
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Q18

The leader of the Filipino resistance to U.S. occupation of the Philippines was ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) Emilio Aguinaldo
B) José Burgos
C) William Howard Taft
D) Ferdinand Marcos
E) José Martí
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Q19

Under the terms of the Taft Commission, the United States ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) would control the Philippines in perpetuity
B) gave the Filipinos complete independence
C) provided funds but did not interfere with local government
D) gave the army complete control of the Philippines
E) guaranteed future independence for the Philippines
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Q20

By 1900, China ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) had succeeded in resisting European influence
B) was the leading Asian power
C) had become vulnerable to European imperialism
D) had closed the door to the outside world
E) welcomed U.S. intervention
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Q21

The Open Door policy ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) claimed economic rights for the U.S. in China
B) met with the approval of western Europe
C) had little effect on American policy in the Far East
D) provided the United States with a sphere of influence in China
E) was publicly denounced in China
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Q22

The Boxer Rebellion took place in ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) the Philippines
B) China
C) Hawaii
D) Cuba
E) Puerto Rico
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Q23

Which individual is incorrectly matched with the region of his greatest foreign policy achievement?

Multiple Choice
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A) James G. Blaine: Latin America
B) George Dewey: Russia
C) William Seward: Alaska
D) John Hay: China
E) John W. Foster: Hawaii
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Q24

How did the end of the Spanish-American War impact the influence of the United States on the world stage?

Multiple Choice
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A) It gave the United States lands beyond its borders for the first time, making it an imperial power.
B) It marked the United States' first major military victory against a world power and established America as an overseas empire.
C) It opened the Caribbean to the United States, giving it protectorates as with European countries.
D) It led to the annexation of Hawaii, giving the United States a stronghold in the Pacific and access to all of Asia.
E) It showed the rest of the world that the United States was militarily powerful and diplomatically weak, like most other world powers.
Answer:

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Q25

Why was the American expansion of the 1890s different from earlier expansionist efforts?

Multiple Choice
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A) It was intended for settlement.
B) It had primarily agricultural objectives.
C) It would create economic and military colonies overseas.
D) It would venture into uninhabited areas.
E) It was the result of war and invasion.
Answer:

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Q26

Why did some people in the 1890s, and even today, consider late nineteenth-century American foreign policy to be an "aberration"?

Multiple Choice
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A) As a democratic republic founded on the idea of freedom, the United States had no right to deny independence to other countries by annexation.
B) The United States had never previously expanded its territory so rapidly.
C) The United States had once been a small country of just thirteen states, so expanding to new lands and creating new states was considered an aberration.
D) As a democratic republic founded on the idea of freedom, the United States had the obligation to seek the same rights for countries around the world.
E) As a former colony, the United States understood the challenges of gaining independence and could better assist new nations than Europe could.
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Q27

How did the geography of the United States encourage isolationism among some Americans?

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A) The United States was so close to Canada and Mexico, that expansion there seemed to make the most sense.
B) The United States was a relatively small country compared to Canada or Mexico, making it less willing to engage in armed conflicts over land.
C) The United States was protected on both sides by vast oceans that discouraged attack from Europe or Asia.
D) Natural barriers separated the U.S. from both Canada and Mexico.
E) The United States was beginning to prosper and look for new markets for its products, and workers for its factories.
Answer:

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Q28

How were religion and foreign policy related in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the United States?

Multiple Choice
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A) Many U.S. foreign ministers were religious leaders, using their diplomatic posts for missionary access.
B) Many religious leaders believed that the United States was blessed with riches that should be shared with the world's poor, making foreign policy mainly about charity.
C) Many religious leaders believed that the United States belonged to Christians, and they should be content and not seek more riches throughout the world.
D) Many religious leaders believed that Americans should bring Christianity to the rest of the world, so they advocated imperialist foreign policies.
E) Many religious leaders followed the "conversion by sword" example of Europe in the Middle Ages, so they advocated military coups.
Answer:

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Q29

Why did William Seward encourage the United States to buy Alaska?

Multiple Choice
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A) He had surveyed Alaska's rich resources.
B) He believed any new land was worth attaining.
C) It gave the United States access to Russia and Asia.
D) It gave the United States access to the Pacific Ocean.
E) He hoped the United States would annex Canada.
Answer:

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Q30

How did the United States and Great Britain avoid war over Venezuela?

Multiple Choice
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A) The defeat of Spain in Cuba encouraged Great Britain to concede Venezuela to the United States.
B) Great Britain's superior naval fleet, which was fully deployed off the coasts of Venezuela and Guiana, discouraged U.S. involvement.
C) Larger problems in Africa and Europe caused Britain to agree to negotiate with Venezuela.
D) The U.S. annexation of Hawaii and the Philippines convinced Great Britain to concede Venezuela.
E) The Venezuelan people successfully boycotted British and U.S. products, demonstrating their resolve for self-rule.
Answer:

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Q31

During the Cleveland administration, which nation did the United States replace as the major power in Latin America?

Multiple Choice
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A) Germany
B) Great Britain
C) Venezuela
D) Mexico
E) Spain
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Q32

Why did American involvement in Hawaii increase in the 1890s?

Multiple Choice
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A) There was intense pressure from American missionaries.
B) There was a fear of German influence in the region.
C) American business interests on the island forced the issue.
D) American traders were interested in Hawaii's cotton crop.
E) Native Hawaiians appealed to the United States for help.
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Q33

How did the provisional government of Hawaii respond to President Cleveland's demand that the queen be restored to her throne?

Multiple Choice
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A) They refused and instead declared Hawaii to be a U.S. state.
B) They refused and instead seceded from the United States.
C) They refused and instead declared Hawaii to be a republic.
D) They agreed and restored the queen to her throne.
E) They agreed but the queen no longer wanted to rule.
Answer:

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Q34

How were Admiral Mahan's naval theories connected to industrialism?

Multiple Choice
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A) He applied theories of industrialization to shipbuilding techniques to produce a large, new fleet of navy vessels.
B) He believed that industrialism created surplus products, creating a need for merchant ships to reach foreign markets and a navy to protect the merchants.
C) He saw that, throughout history, only nations with strong navies were able to compete in industrial societies.
D) He believed that industrialization dehumanized people, so he encouraged the traditional manual labor of ship building and sailing.
E) He believed that industrialism was distracting Americans from important foreign affairs, so he developed a navy that would focus Americans outward.
Answer:

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Q35

In their approaches to the Cuban rebellion against Spain, ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) President Cleveland was neutral while President McKinley favored the insurgents
B) President Cleveland wanted to intervene for the insurgents, but McKinley was neutral
C) both Presidents Cleveland and McKinley wanted war with Spain
D) both Presidents Cleveland and McKinley were totally neutral
E) both Presidents Cleveland and McKinley opposed involvement with Spain or Cuba
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Q36

In what way did the outcome of the Spanish-American War fulfill Theodore Roosevelt's hopes for the United States?

Multiple Choice
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A) It gave the United States influence and eventually dominance in Latin America and Western Europe.
B) It made the United States a world power, on equal footing to European imperialist countries.
C) It gave the United States more foreign markets for their surplus of farm and factory products.
D) It gave the United States influence in the Caribbean, helped further the annexation of Hawaii, and was the impetus to create a powerful navy.
E) It freed Cuba, gave Americans something to consider other than material gain, and provided practice for the army and navy.
Answer:

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Q37

What was one result of yellow journalism stories about Cuba in the 1890s?

Multiple Choice
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A) Americans believed Cubans were conspiring to control the Caribbean and were, therefore, reluctant to go to war to help them gain independence.
B) Americans believed that Spain had a right to imperialist holdings in Cuba but that they should treat their colonies better.
C) Americans became enraged about Spain's treatment of Cubans and the sinking of the Maine.
D) Cowardly journalists did not report Cuban atrocities for fear that the Spanish government would retaliate, hence the term "yellow journalism."
E) Powerful Asian governments saw Cuba as the first step in a series of imperialist moves, so they sent journalists to the U.S. to spread rumors against intervention.
Answer:

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Q38

What finally pushed President McKinley to ask for a declaration of war against Spain?

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A) He was a weak and indecisive leader, who was forced into war.
B) The conflicting national interests of Spain and the United States left few alternatives.
C) He hoped that a war would bring him political power and the country territorial gains.
D) Spain was unwilling to accede to any of the demands of the United States.
E) The Cuban people appealed to him directly and asked for his help.
Answer:

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Q39

In what way was the Spanish-American War fought by small-town America?

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A) Most of the volunteer soldiers who served in the armed forces were from rural America.
B) There were so many volunteers that each unit of soldiers was like a small town in size and function.
C) The navy and army found that men worked better if they knew someone in their unit, so they created a buddy system, pairing men from small towns.
D) Soldiers were organized into National Guard units by town, so they observed the customs and relationships of their hometowns.
E) All of America was involved in the war effort, making uniforms, saving metal, conserving food; the war was won by people back home in small towns.
Answer:

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Q40

In what way was the experience of the Spanish-American War ironic for African-American soldiers?

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A) Most of the people that African-American soldiers fought against in Cuba had the same African heritage.
B) African Americans were not permitted to fight in the Cuban conflict but were allowed to fight in the Philippines.
C) African Americans were not permitted to fight in Cuba and could only work as cooks, medics, and servants to white soldiers.
D) The United States was finally recognizing the freedom and humanity of African Americans, while invading Cuba.
E) The United States were fighting to give Cubans freedom, yet they denied many freedoms to African Americans.
Answer:

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Q41

How did some American labor leaders respond to the idea of annexing the Philippines?

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A) They were against it because they worried about losing jobs to cheap labor from the Philippines.
B) They were against it because they worried that Filipino workers would demand higher wages than Americans.
C) They were against it because they worried trade with the Philippines would increase import tariffs and raise taxes.
D) They were in favor of it because they wanted to increase union membership by recruiting Filipino workers.
E) They were in favor of it because they believed Filipinos would take the jobs that American workers did not want.
Answer:

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Q42

Why was Booker T. Washington opposed to the idea of annexing the Philippines?

Multiple Choice
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A) Washington thought the United States should focus on domestic matters instead, such as the treatment of African Americans and American Indians.
B) Washington thought the Filipinos would resist the idea of converting to Christianity and believed that all Americans should be Christian.
C) Washington feared that Filipinos would migrate to the United States and work for lower wages, which would take jobs away from African Americans.
D) Washington warned that possessing a colony would increase the federal debt and lead to higher income taxes as a result.
E) Washington believed that having a colony was opposed to basic American ideals, such as independence and self-determination.
Answer:

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Q43

How did the Boxer Rebellion affect U.S. foreign policy in China?

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A) The United States realized that China would not cooperate with the Open Door policy and began to join the European nations in dividing up China.
B) The United States affirmed their Open Door policy and declared China's independence from any foreign (European) rule.
C) The United States saw that China was determined to keep out foreign influence, so they withdrew to the Philippines, to avoid armed conflict.
D) The United States realized that anti-imperialists back home wanted them to withdraw from China, so they negotiated secretly.
E) The rebellion in Cuba turned the United States' attention away from China and to the anti-imperialist demonstrations closer to home.
Answer:

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Q44

Does U.S. foreign policy today more closely reflect the isolationist or the expansionist model?

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A) Because the United States no longer participates in armed conflicts in other countries, it reflects the isolationist model.
B) Because the United States only participates in the world economically (not militarily or politically), it reflects the isolationist model.
C) Because the United States participates in affairs throughout the world for its own benefit, it reflects the expansionist model.
D) Because the United States only participates in the other countries' struggles for freedom and not for any U.S. gain, it reflects the expansionist model.
E) Since the U.S. has exerted its influence through its buying power, it reflects the imperialist model.
Answer:

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Q45

Which of the following was NOT a factor in fostering a change in American foreign policy by 1890?

Multiple Choice
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A) the census report of 1890
B) concern over lack of natural resources
C) oversaturation of domestic markets
D) the rise of evolution-inspired notions of racial superiority
E) the perceived need for more foreign markets
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Q46

Which of the following was NOT a difficulty in annexing the Hawaiian Islands?

Multiple Choice
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A) no clear motives for annexation
B) the threat of Japanese intervention
C) the opposition to annexing non-Anglo-Saxons
D) the lack of political consensus for annexation in Washington
E) the fear of the problems that colonial rule would bring
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Q47

Which of the following did NOT play any role leading up to the Spanish-American War?

Multiple Choice
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A) the de Lôme letter
B) the annexation of Hawaii
C) the sinking of the Maine
D) the "reconcentration" policy
E) the riots in Havana in January
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Q48

Which of the following was NOT an argument opposing the annexation of the Philippines?

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A) The natives could not be Christianized.
B) Colonization violated the founding principles of the U.S.
C) The Filipinos could never become Americans.
D) Cheap labor could be imported from the Philippines.
E) Trade could flourish without annexation.
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Q49

U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East today most closely resembles the foreign policy of the 1890s regarding ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) Venezuela"“"“the United States nearly went to war with a European power over another country's border dispute
B) the Philippines"”the United States used military power to protect a country's independence and then had trouble withdrawing immediately
C) Hawaii"”the United States annexed a territory and then formed a state out of valuable foreign land
D) Cuba"”the United States used military power and defeated an imperial enemy in a short amount of time
E) Alaska"”the United States bought territory from other countries and eventually made it a state
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Q50

What can be assumed about attitudes toward foreign policy given the status of the Republican Party in the early twentieth century?

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A) The pro-isolationist Republicans were the most popular party, so it can be assumed that expansionists were in the minority.
B) The anti-imperialist Republicans were the most popular party, so it can be assumed that pro-imperialists were a minority.
C) The pro-isolationist Republicans were the most popular party, so it can be assumed that interventionists were in the minority.
D) The pro-expansionist Republicans were the most popular party, so it can be assumed that isolationists were in the minority.
E) The anti-imperialist Republicans were the most popular party, so it can be assumed that isolationists were also popular.
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