Quiz 26: America And The World, 1921-1945

America, Past and Present

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Questions

Q1
Free

The most striking characteristic of the stock market in 1929 was _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) the obsession with speculation among investors
B) the downward trend of major stocks early in the year
C) the government's desire to carefully regulate the market
D) the heavy involvement of the majority of wage-earning Americans
E) the steady advancement through the decade
Answer:
A) the obsession with speculation among investors
Q2
Free

By 1932, what percentage of American workers were unemployed?

Multiple Choice
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A) 10%
B) 12%
C) 25%
D) 33%
E) 50%
Answer:
C) 25%
Q3
Free

The social and economic effects of the Depression _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) affected only the wealthier classes
B) hit the middle class especially hard
C) lasted only a few months at the end of 1929
D) were suffered only by the lower classes
E) came to light only gradually
Answer:
B) hit the middle class especially hard
Q4

Hoover believed that unemployment relief _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) was justified by previous government policies
B) would bring about dangerous inflation
C) could promote domestic unrest
D) should come from private charities
E) would be a sign of weakness
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Q5

Hoover's response to the Great Depression could best be described as _______.

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A) restrained and cautious
B) innovative and adaptive
C) humanitarian and pragmatic
D) socialist and radical
E) aggressive and rapid
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Q6

Roosevelt's Hundred Days banking legislation aimed to _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) remedy a banking crisis
B) decrease government regulation of U.S. banks
C) allow the government to take over the banking system
D) give bankers a place in his government
E) merge smaller banks with larger ones
Answer:

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Q7

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was designed to _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) help support continued control of electrical power by private companies
B) bring modernization and jobs to desolate areas of the upper rural South
C) alienate troublesome conservationists in his administration
D) test the authority of the Supreme Court
E) win votes in a largely Republican area of the country
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Q8

The National Recovery Administration sought to promote economic recovery by _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) reducing corporate taxes
B) restoring competition
C) experimenting with national economic planning
D) implementing classical economic theory
E) eliminating all taxes
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Q9

Which New Deal program did the Supreme Court declare unconstitutional?

Multiple Choice
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A) Commodity Credit Corporation
B) Civilian Conservation Corps
C) National Recovery Administration
D) Tennessee Valley Authority
E) Civil Works Administration
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Q10

Which of the following was a New Deal program that worked to bring about farm recovery?

Multiple Choice
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A) the Federal Farm Board
B) the Agricultural Adjustment Administration
C) the Tennessee Valley Authority
D) the National Recovery Administration
E) the Civilian Conservation Corps
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Q11

Franklin D. Roosevelt and his advisers believed that _______ production would raise prices for farmers.

Multiple Choice
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A) reducing
B) increasing
C) redistributing
D) expropriating
E) monitoring
Answer:

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Q12

Young men were hired to clear land, plant trees, and build bridges and fish ponds by the _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) Tennessee Valley Authority
B) National Recovery Administration
C) Public Works Administration
D) Works Progress Administration
E) Civilian Conservation Corps
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Q13

By 1935, Roosevelt's severest critics were those _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) who were members of the Supreme Court
B) accusing him of being a socialist
C) demanding more radical reforms
D) accusing him of ignoring foreign interests
E) scolding him for not helping African Americans
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Q14

Francis Townsend advocated that the federal government pay $200 each month to _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) all Americans over the age of 60
B) dispossessed farmers
C) veterans of World War I
D) widows with two or more children
E) unemployed urban workers
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Q15

Which of the following was advocated by Father Charles Coughlin?

Multiple Choice
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A) the Social Security Act
B) the National Union for Social Justice
C) the Civilian Conservation Corps
D) the Federal Theatre Project
E) the "Share the Wealth" movement
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Q16

The National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) guaranteed that all workers would be paid a minimum wage
B) granted workers the right to organize and collectively bargain
C) gave management the right to forbid the "closed shop"
D) gave the president the power to end strikes
E) did not help workers who were not already unionized
Answer:

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Q17

The industrial union movement of the 1930s _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) sought to organize skilled workers in particular trades
B) had long been championed by the American Federation of Labor
C) was led by William Green
D) grew greatly in the 1930s
E) had been thriving for years before the Great Depression
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Q18

The sit-down strike _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) was first used against General Motors in 1936
B) was used only by the United Auto Workers
C) proved ineffective against major corporations
D) was first used against the Ford Motor Company
E) was a time-tested technique from strikes in the 1920s
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Q19

The individual most responsible for promoting African-American rights during the New Deal was _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) Franklin D. Roosevelt
B) John Collier
C) Harry Hopkins
D) Harold Ickes
E) Huey Long
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Q20

Local authorities rounded up ________ to deport them and reduce the welfare rolls.

Multiple Choice
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A) African Americans
B) Mexican immigrants
C) Asian immigrants
D) Native Americans
E) European Americans
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Q21

Despite the New Deal, ________ remained the country's most impoverished citizens.

Multiple Choice
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A) African Americans
B) Asian Americans
C) Native Americans
D) Mexican Americans
E) "Okies" and "Arkies"
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Q22

Roosevelt's "court packing" proposal was _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) a non-starter that never got off the ground
B) curtailed due to opposition from Republicans
C) effectively blocked by Democratic opposition
D) implemented partially and resulted in three appointments
E) successful at limiting the power of the Supreme Court
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Q23

Why did farmers during the Great Depression resort to such extreme measures as dumping fresh milk into the streets?

Multiple Choice
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A) Like many other Americans during the Great Depression, dairy farmers fell victim to despair and lost their hope in the future.
B) The shipping industry had been so devastated by the Great Depression that farmers had no way to get their produce to market.
C) Farmers hoped to increase demand and drive up prices for their products by decreasing the available supply.
D) Due to widespread poverty among the American population, hardly anyone could afford to buy milk.
E) The government had instituted milk rationing which resulted in the overproduction of milk by dairy farmers.
Answer:

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Q24

How did the consumer-goods revolution contribute to the great crash of 1929?

Multiple Choice
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A) The production of durable goods, which did not need to be replaced, outpaced demand and led to widescale layoffs.
B) Mass-produced consumer goods were of such poor quality that people eventually stopped purchasing them and the industry began to falter.
C) The consumer goods revolution had contributed to a lack of confidence in the strength of the American economic system.
D) The consumer goods revolution led to an increase in home construction that eventually crashed due to overproduction.
E) The beneficiaries of the consumer goods revolution did not invest their money in the stock exchange.
Answer:

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Q25

How did Americans respond to the bull market climate on the eve of the great crash in 1929?

Multiple Choice
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A) A general sense of caution about the ability of the market to continue to yield such fantastic dividends caused the market to falter.
B) Average Americans tended not to invest in the market themselves, instead relying on professional stockbrokers to invest their savings.
C) Many Americans looked to the government for guidance on how to invest in such a rapidly growing market.
D) Wild optimism about the continued growth of the stock market led Americans to engage in speculative investing practices.
E) Wary about the danger of "get rich quick" schemes, many Americans carefully guarded their life savings.
Answer:

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Q26

How did the Great Depression affect Americans psychologically?

Multiple Choice
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A) The loss of savings and employment led most Americans to renounce capitalism and turn to socialism.
B) Unemployment and poverty undermined people's sense of self-worth and caused many to despair.
C) Most men either committed suicide or abandoned their families because they could not provide for them.
D) Americans in the middle and upper classes had more emotional resources and fared better than poor people.
E) Hunger and poverty made Americans unable to think properly and make good decisions, leading to divorce and crime.
Answer:

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Q27

What effect did the Great Depression have on immigration to the United States?

Multiple Choice
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A) The rate of immigration to the United States remained constant during the Great Depression.
B) More immigrants came to the United States at this time due to the availability of low-skill, hard-labor jobs.
C) Progressives urged that legislation be passed to restrict immigration and make it more difficult for immigrants to become citizens.
D) Conservatives supported immigration reform since immigrants tended to take jobs that Americans were too proud to take.
E) The Great Depression effectively reversed the flow of immigration across the Rio Grande, deporting hundreds of thousands of immigrants.
Answer:

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Q28

How did Roosevelt go about winning the Democratic nomination in 1932?

Multiple Choice
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A) He set the populists and urban reformers in opposition to each other.
B) He called for an end to traditional beliefs and conservative policies.
C) He backed the platform of the segregationists against the reformers.
D) He appealed to both the traditionalists and the new urban elements within the party.
E) He relied heavily on minority voters.
Answer:

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Q29

Which of FDR's actions ended the immediate financial crisis of the 1930s?

Multiple Choice
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A) FDR established the Tennessee Valley Authority and created thousands of new jobs.
B) FDR's Works Progress Administration spent nearly $5 billion on emergency relief.
C) FDR worked with powerful European nations to advance American agricultural trade.
D) Using a calm and fatherly tone, FDR soothed the public's fears during fireside chats.
E) FDR gave government aid to the large banks, restoring confidence in the banking system.
Answer:

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Q30

How did agencies created during the Hundred Days affect the Great Depression?

Multiple Choice
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A) They attempted to relieve the suffering of Americans by giving government-subsidized loans at very low rates.
B) Agencies such as the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Civilian Conservation Corps succeeded in getting most of the unemployed back to work.
C) Their main effect was to end economic stagnation by getting many people back to work on government projects.
D) They strengthened all the failing banks of the country, restoring Americans' confidence in banking.
E) They did little to affect the Great Depression, but they were perceived to be effective by the public.
Answer:

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Q31

What ultimately caused the National Recovery Administration to fail?

Multiple Choice
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A) It did not address business owners' goals of stabilizing production and raising prices.
B) It compelled all companies to join, regardless of whether they wanted to or not.
C) In the final analysis, very few industries decided to enroll in the NRA.
D) Its rules favored large corporations over small businesses and laborers.
E) It did not attempt to address labor leaders' goals of establishing a minimum wage.
Answer:

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Q32

How did the farm recovery program work to fix the agricultural industry?

Multiple Choice
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A) It favored small farming operations over large industrial ones.
B) It convinced farmers to stop destroying their livestock and crops.
C) It found new international markets for surplus American crops.
D) It set production limits for leading crops and paid farmers subsidies.
E) It increased demand by giving away surplus food to the starving poor.
Answer:

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Q33

Why was the New Deal criticized during the early years of the Great Depression?

Multiple Choice
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A) Many felt that Roosevelt's programs were not aggressive enough in helping those truly in need.
B) Some felt that its programs favored minorities and immigrants, leaving white middle class Americans without aid.
C) Policies of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration were criticized for hampering agricultural production and leading to food shortages.
D) Critics disagreed with the New Deal's attempts to institute national health insurance and relief for the unemployed.
E) Roosevelt and his policies were criticized for not reaching out to bankers, business leaders, and others in the world of finance.
Answer:

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Q34

How did Huey Long's "Share the Wealth" movement reflect on the federal government's efforts to address the Great Depression?

Multiple Choice
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A) The fact that Americans were swayed by Huey Long's flamboyant style suggested that they had become disillusioned with FDR's leadership.
B) The "Share the Wealth" movement complemented the New Deal's programs, which similarly sought to increase the standard of living of all Americans.
C) The "Share the Wealth" movement suggested that a large number of people felt that more should be done for those in trouble.
D) Rising frustration with the slow pace of recovery resulted in a grassroots revival of fundamentalist Christianity.
E) The emergence of viable third-party candidates suggested that neither Democrats nor Republicans were capable of ending the Great Depression.
Answer:

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Q35

What was the primary motivation for the passage of the Social Security Act?

Multiple Choice
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A) It was motivated by a belief that people ought to take responsibility for their economic decisions and situations.
B) It was motivated by a desire to fend off Republican challenges to Democratic policies and to ensure that FDR would be reelected.
C) It was motivated by a belief that wealth should be distributed equally among all American citizens and across all social classes.
D) It was motivated by a concern that radical elements within American society would gain power if discontent among the poor and dispossessed was not remedied.
E) It was motivated by a sense of duty to ensure that all American citizens, especially the elderly, handicapped, and unemployed, were adequately protected.
Answer:

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Q36

How did the New Deal affect American industrial workers?

Multiple Choice
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A) It provided them with jobs, regardless of race or gender.
B) It provided the means for them to organize and bargain for benefits.
C) It allowed skilled workers to unionize, but left unskilled workers unrepresented.
D) It left them at the mercy of businesses that were supported by the government.
E) It squeezed out women and minorities to give jobs to white male workers.
Answer:

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Q37

How were women and African Americans in the automobile and steel industries affected by the organization of labor in the 1930s?

Multiple Choice
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A) They were given a higher percentage of jobs because the government recognized that both groups had been traditionally undervalued.
B) Their wages increased to equal that of white men because the government recognized that they had been traditionally underpaid.
C) They were granted education and agricultural incentives to remove them from the workforce and reduce competition for white men.
D) They filled largely unskilled jobs and were able to join unions along with skilled laborers due to the passage of new legislation.
E) They did not benefit from the organization of labor and were shut out of almost all unions and trade associations.
Answer:

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Q38

Most African Americans shifted political affiliation from the Republican Party to the Democratic Party in response to _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) FDR designing the TVA and NRA specifically to benefit African Americans.
B) FDR appointing African Americans to high-ranking government positions.
C) FDR ensuring that African Americans received the same wages as white workers.
D) FDR using the New Deal to create legislation to end segregation in the South.
E) FDR providing employment and job security to most African Americans.
Answer:

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Q39

What was one major impact of the New Deal on party politics?

Multiple Choice
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A) It restored the U.S. economy to its original preeminence in the world.
B) It united Democrats and Republicans as no other crisis had before or since.
C) It sought to create a coalition by reaching out to ethnic voters.
D) It changed the political affiliations for most rural and urban voters.
E) It created a unified Democratic party of rural southerners and urban westerners.
Answer:

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Q40

What is one reason why the election of 1936 was noteworthy?

Multiple Choice
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A) It restored Republicans to power after years of Democratic rule.
B) It was the first time a third-party candidate received a sizable number of votes.
C) It marked the creation of a new, powerful political coalition.
D) It affected the political affiliation of most rural and small town voters.
E) It solidified a Democratic party of rural southerners and urban westerners.
Answer:

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Q41

Why did FDR attempt to "pack" the Supreme Court?

Multiple Choice
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A) He knew opposing the Supreme Court would unite his disparate Democratic Party.
B) He knew opposing the Supreme Court would win him bipartisan support.
C) He saw the Supreme Court's interference with the New Deal as unconstitutional.
D) He wanted to remove the final and most powerful threat to his New Deal programs.
E) He wanted to create a Democratic Supreme Court to ensure his legacy.
Answer:

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Q42

How did the creation of reform programs during the New Deal eventually lead to its demise?

Multiple Choice
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A) The programs actually did very little to change the U.S. economic situation.
B) The programs required massive government spending and could not be sustained.
C) The programs were dismissed by Republicans who took control of Congress.
D) The programs were unpopular with the general public who began to speak out.
E) The programs were too progressive and could not outlast political changes.
Answer:

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Q43

How did FDR's attitude toward budget deficits impact the success of the New Deal?

Multiple Choice
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A) He drew from the country's reserves and could not rescue the economy.
B) He did not see the importance of deficits, which could have helped the economy.
C) He raised the deficits, which inhibited his ability to save the economy.
D) He sought a balanced budget when he should have increased spending.
E) He spent too much and nearly bankrupted the United States.
Answer:

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Q44

How might FDR's personal background have prepared him to meet the challenges of the Great Depression?

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A) Since he was from a privileged background, he did not personally suffer financial hardship, which left him free to address the country's crisis.
B) His service as assistant secretary of the Navy under Woodrow Wilson prepared him to balance foreign and domestic affairs during the Great Depression.
C) His relationship to Theodore Roosevelt helped him become a conservationist and a powerful Republican leader.
D) His bout with polio gave him personal experience of suffering and made him more sensitive to the downtrodden of society.
E) His Ivy League education helped him understand the needs of wealthy American businessmen during the Great Depression.
Answer:

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Q45

Which of these explains the failure of the National Recovery Administration?

Multiple Choice
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A) Labor and management were unable to really work together.
B) Its programs failed to help farmers.
C) Few banks were actually saved by the program.
D) The Supreme Court struck the program down at the height of its success.
E) The limits put on competition drove prices disastrously low.
Answer:

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Q46

Which of the following was NOT a way that the Great Depression benefited the Democrats?

Multiple Choice
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A) Their handling of the Depression was universally popular, giving the Democrats control of Congress for a two-year period.
B) The Democrats were given the mandate to address the crisis and had almost unanimous support early on.
C) FDR and Democratic lawmakers passed landmark legislation, such as the Social Security Act.
D) The Republicans had been unable to prevent the Depression, and as a result the Democrats returned to power.
E) Initially, Democrats enjoyed party cohesion that helped push through New Deal programs.
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Q47

Working women in the 1930s faced all of the following EXCEPT _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) discriminatory hiring and firing practices
B) an unemployment rate higher than 20 percent for a decade
C) lower wages sanctioned by government regulations
D) lack of a minimum wage for maids and waitresses
E) lack of appointments for women in high-ranking positions
Answer:

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Q48

In his second term, Roosevelt was stung by all of the following EXCEPT _______.

Multiple Choice
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A) strained relations with Congress in the wake of his "court packing" scheme
B) the defeat of minimum wage and maximum hour legislation
C) a serious economic relapse known as the "Roosevelt recession"
D) a Republican resurgence during the 1938 midterm elections
E) the emergence of a conservative congressional coalition
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Q49

Which of the following adjectives best describes economic recovery in the wake of the New Deal?

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A) fast and steep
B) well-paced and continuous
C) slow and halting
D) slow but steady
E) fast but halting
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Q50

What was the most significant long-range effect of the New Deal on American society?

Multiple Choice
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A) After the New Deal, Americans tended to resist large-scale governmental programs that sought directly to control aspects of economic and social life.
B) The economic initiatives and programs instituted by FDR's administration during the New Deal have continued to strengthen the U.S. economy to this day.
C) Since the New Deal, a tight coalition between southern Democrats and conservative Republicans has continued to oppose presidential policies.
D) The immigration policies established during the New Deal continue to set quotas, insulating Americanborn workers from foreign-born competition.
E) Certain key programs, such as Social Security, have become an integral part of American life, providing essential benefits to millions of Americans today.
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