Quiz 10: The Triumph Of White Men's Democracy

America, Past and Present

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Questions

Q1
Free

________ came to symbolize the triumph of democracy in the 1820s.

Multiple Choice
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A) Henry Clay
B) John C. Calhoun
C) Daniel Webster
D) Martin Van Buren
E) Andrew Jackson
Answer:
E) Andrew Jackson
Q2
Free

The most evident feature of democracy in America to European travelers was the ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) American contribution
B) decline in the spirit of deference
C) participation of women in government
D) American election process
E) equality of former slaves
Answer:
B) decline in the spirit of deference
Q3
Free

American culture in the Jacksonian period ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) reflected the development of a more hierarchical society
B) was based on elitism and privileges
C) was primarily the concern of the upper class
D) reflected the rise of the democratic spirit
E) reached an all-time low in production
Answer:
D) reflected the rise of the democratic spirit
Q4

Which of the following individuals is incorrectly matched with his art form?

Multiple Choice
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A) William Sidney Mount: paintings
B) Nathaniel Hawthorne: novels
C) Herman Melville: novels
D) Oliver Wendell Holmes: paintings
E) George Caleb Bingham: paintings
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Q5

The most obvious indicator of the supremacy of democracy in the United States was the ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) high percentage of people who voted
B) widespread use of the "spoils system"
C) absence of any kind of social or economic class
D) development of universal white manhood suffrage
E) increase in the number of appointed officials
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Q6

Martin Van Buren regarded a two-party system as essential to democratic government because ________.

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A) it provided a check on the temptation to abuse power
B) he believed governments could not operate effectively without parties
C) they were traditional in democracies
D) he saw two parties as a way to increase his personal power
E) three or more parties would cause too much voter confusion
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Q7

The major issues dominating politics in the 1820s and 1830s were ________.

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A) constitutional
B) sectional
C) social
D) economic
E) diplomatic
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Q8

The "corrupt bargain" was used to describe ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) another name for the Missouri Compromise
B) the selection of John Quincy Adams for president
C) President Jackson's policy of Indian removal
D) the appointment of Roger B. Taney as chief justice
E) an insulting reference to Jackson's marriage to Rachel Robards
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Q9

Which of the following men were true political and philosophical allies in the 1820s?

Multiple Choice
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A) John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay
B) Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson
C) Andrew Jackson and John Marshall
D) Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun
E) Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams
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Q10

The main issue of John Quincy Adams's presidency was ________.

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A) the forced relocation of Native Americans
B) relations with Canada
C) foreign affairs
D) tariffs
E) the idea of a continental railroad
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Q11

Andrew Jackson's attitude toward Native Americans was that they should be ________.

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A) removed to areas beyond white expansion
B) allowed to remain on their tribal lands
C) encouraging settlement and assimilation
D) treated as equals to the white man
E) exterminated
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Q12

________ denied states the right to take Native American tribal lands.

Multiple Choice
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A) McCulloch v. Maryland
B) southern legislatures
C) Worcester v. Georgia
D) Fletcher v. Peck
E) Wallace v. Tennessee
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Q13

The Trail of Tears refers to ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) the destruction of the national bank
B) passage of the "tariff of abominations"
C) the forced relocation of the Cherokees to Oklahoma
D) the nullification controversy
E) the Oregon Trail and westward expansion
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Q14

In the 1830s and 1840s, the most vocal advocate of states' rights was ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) Daniel Webster
B) Henry Clay
C) John C. Calhoun
D) Martin Van Buren
E) Andrew Jackson
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Q15

The nullification crisis was strongly influenced by ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) foreign manufacturing interests
B) the political maneuvers of the National Republicans
C) the demands of other southern states
D) the fear of attacks on slavery
E) the relocation of Native Americans
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Q16

The nullification crisis of the early 1830s ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) had little impact outside South Carolina
B) was of little significance to the future of the United States
C) revealed the strength of the Constitution
D) was an early indication of dangerous future divisions
E) demonstrated the inherent solidarity of the Union
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Q17

Who was the president of the Bank of the United States and Andrew Jackson's chief opponent in the "bank war"?

Multiple Choice
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A) Henry Clay
B) John C. Calhoun
C) Francis B. Blair
D) Nicholas Biddle
E) John Jacob Astor
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Q18

The strategic blunder made by Nicholas Biddle was his ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) decision to confide in Henry Clay
B) decision to seek the bank's charter renewal four years early
C) decision to give bank loans to congressmen
D) failure to listen to the advice of Henry Clay
E) advocacy of large loans to immigrants
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Q19

The major significance of Jackson's national bank veto message was that it ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) was the first veto made by Jackson
B) failed to explain the constitutional reasons for his decision
C) was the first veto not based solely on a bill's constitutionality
D) decisively ended the life of the national bank
E) was the first recorded presidential veto
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Q20

Andrew Jackson killed the national bank ________.

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A) by withdrawing federal deposits from it
B) through further legislation
C) through the actions of the Supreme Court
D) by letting its charter expire in 1836
E) by accusing Nicholas Biddle of treasonous acts
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Q21

The Whig Party ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) generally supported Jackson's presidency
B) grew from a coalition of Jackson's opponents
C) refused the support of other, smaller parties
D) represented political ideas unique to the American experience
E) supported abolition
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Q22

William Henry Harrison's nickname "Tippecanoe" refers to his ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) support for the emancipation of African-American slaves in the South
B) birthplace
C) experience as a legislative logroller
D) military experience
E) prediction of the nullification crisis
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Q23

Belief in a national bank, high tariffs, and federally financed internal improvements best describes the policies of which party in the 1830s?

Multiple Choice
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A) Democrats
B) Republicans
C) Masons
D) Whigs
E) Federalists
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Q24

Typically, immigrants, Catholics, freethinkers, and backwoods farmers of the 1840s would be members of the ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) Democratic party
B) Equal Rights party
C) Federalist party
D) Whig party
E) Republican party
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Q25

In the 1840s, which of the following was LEAST likely to determine a person's political identification?

Multiple Choice
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A) social class
B) economic interests
C) religious belief
D) ethnic identity
E) lifestyle
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Q26

How did hotels symbolize the American spirit in the 1820s"“1840s?

Multiple Choice
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A) Like democracy, they were open to all men, but closed to women; they also showed how easily people moved around physically, socially, economically, and politically.
B) Hotels reflected the cultural changes"”particularly the blurring of class distinctions"”that accompanied the extension of the franchise in the period.
C) Hotels were often sites of debauchery and illicit behaviors, showing that Americans had become morally bankrupt.
D) Hotels were expensive demonstrating the entrepreneurial power of the American spirit.
E) Hotels were large, cavernous places, not the cozy warm places that old-fashioned inns were; they symbolized the size of America geographically, economically, and politically.
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Q27

In what ways was American democracy an illusion in the 1820s"“1840s?

Multiple Choice
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A) Although all white men began life with equal opportunities, women and African and Native Americans did not.
B) Despite the impression that people had equal opportunities, distinctions of class and education persisted.
C) Not only were women and African and Native Americans excluded, but economic inequality was growing.
D) Only land owners could vote, and as there were so few land owners in the United States, suffrage was not universal even among white men.
E) U.S. foreign policy in Latin America showed that the democracy Americans enjoyed was not the same system they supported for their neighbors.
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Q28

What theme ran through almost all cultural expression of the 1820s"“1840s?

Multiple Choice
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A) peace
B) prosperity
C) expansion
D) morality
E) democracy
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Q29

What led the two-party system of politics to develop in the 1820s"“1840s?

Multiple Choice
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A) The Supreme Court passed changes in the Constitution regarding the party system.
B) There was an increasing concern about foreign policy issues.
C) Changes in the method of nominating and electing the president developed.
D) The burgeoning population of the trans-Appalachian West created a need for two parties.
E) Married women gained the right to vote and created a second party.
Answer:

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Q30

Which of these led voter participation in elections to increase dramatically between 1824 and 1840?

Multiple Choice
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A) The population of the U.S. grew, so the number of voters increased.
B) People who had been migrating were settled and could register and vote.
C) African Americans in the North were given permission and encouragement to vote.
D) Politicians changed campaigning practices, drawing in more voters.
E) Native Americans in the South and West were given permission and encouragement to vote.
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Q31

Why was Andrew Jackson so influential in the mid-1800s?

Multiple Choice
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A) He embodied the popular taste for democracy and social leveling.
B) He was a charismatic and kind president, fighting for the poor and disenfranchised.
C) The 1830s and 1840s represented a time in which Americans wanted to be led by a strong leader.
D) He made political deals to gain majority support in Congress and the Supreme Court, using the other branches to further his own agenda.
E) His political career had earned him popularity among both Whigs and Democrats.
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Q32

Why did the "tariff of abominations" become a major campaign issue of the 1828 elections?

Multiple Choice
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A) Adams' campaigners used it to try to win reelection, suggesting that the tariff showed Jackson was an unfit candidate.
B) Jackson campaigners used the tariff to rally opposition to the Adams administration.
C) The Democratic party in the South (where the tariff was hated) used the tariff to rally around Jackson, a staunch opponent of the tariff.
D) The Republican party in the North (where the tariff was generally welcomed) used it to rally around Adams, a staunch supporter of the tariff.
E) Senator Martin Van Buren opposed both Adams and Jackson on the tariff and state rights, proposing a third party that would eliminate the tariff.
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Q33

How did campaigning methods change in the election campaign of 1828?

Multiple Choice
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A) Politicians campaigned at state and local levels, using parades, barbeques, and eventually rumors and mudslinging.
B) Politicians did most of the campaigning themselves, going door-to-door in their cities and soliciting support.
C) Politicians hired people called "supporters"; the name is ironic because they didn't necessarily believe in the candidate but were financially supported by him.
D) Politicians debated with opposing candidates in town squares, halls, and newspaper forums.
E) Politicians relied predominantly on newspapers, writing essays and letters to editors that were read nationwide.
Answer:

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Q34

Georgia's actions against the Cherokee were very similar to those of South Carolina's in regard to the "tariff of abominations" in that both hinged on _________.

Multiple Choice
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A) motives that were primarily patriotic
B) a strict reading of the Bill of Rights
C) states' rights and defiance of the Constitution
D) protectionism
E) racism and chauvinism
Answer:

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Q35

Why did South Carolinians protest the tariff of 1828?

Multiple Choice
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A) They feared its effect on the price of cotton.
B) They saw it as an unfair "northern" law.
C) They used it as an excuse to exert a state veto of federal law.
D) They disliked Andrew Jackson.
E) Tariffs determined the prices that southerners could get for their manufactured goods.
Answer:

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Q36

What can one conclude from Jackson's response to the nullification crisis?

Multiple Choice
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A) Jackson was a strong supporter of states' rights.
B) Jackson believed that states were not truly sovereign.
C) Jackson supported the unlimited use of federal power.
D) Jackson supported higher tariffs especially on manufactured goods coming from Europe.
E) Jackson supported lower tariffs especially on manufactured goods going from the South to the North.
Answer:

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Q37

Why were most southern states unconcerned about Jackson's fight with South Carolina?

Multiple Choice
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A) They knew him to be in sympathy with the abolitionists.
B) They knew him to be truly an advocate of extreme state sovereignty.
C) He was a Southerner and a slaveholder.
D) They knew he was unable to prevent Congress from overriding his decisions.
E) He was a master politician with the ability to turn enemies into allies.
Answer:

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Q38

How was Jackson's Force Bill of 1833 connected with slavery?

Multiple Choice
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A) South Carolina equated the extension of federal power with a threat to the institution of slavery.
B) Many Northerners feared that if Southerners required the threat of force to pay tariffs they would require physical violence to obey antislavery laws.
C) The Force Bill of 1833 surprised South Carolinians in that Jackson showed he was willing to force abolitionist ideas on Southerners.
D) The Force Bill of 1833 required Southerners to pay tariffs on all manufactured goods, including slaves traded from Africa and within the South.
E) The Force Bill of 1833 put a time limit not only on the slave trade but also the institution itself.
Answer:

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Q39

How did the foundation of the Democratic party differ from that of the Whig Party?

Multiple Choice
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A) The Democratic party was composed of white evangelical Protestants, whereas the Whig party was founded as a more universal group.
B) The Democratic party was founded to infuse politics with morality, whereas the Whig party was established to champion individual freedom.
C) The Democratic party was founded by Andrew Jackson in his second term as president, whereas the Whig party was founded by Adams in his first term.
D) The Democratic party was founded to support Jackson's presidency, whereas the Whig party was founded to counter Jackson's attack on the Bank.
E) The Whig party was founded to elect Jackson whereas the Democratic party was founded to counter Jackson's attack on the Bank.
Answer:

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Q40

The "kitchen cabinet" was ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) Jackson's special staff of gourmet chefs who prepared White House meals, demonstrating his hypocrisy with regard to social deference
B) a reference to the fact that the only place Jackson could consult with his official advisors in secrecy was in the White House kitchen
C) Jackson's circle of unofficial advisors
D) the oldest piece of furniture in the White House, saved from destruction by then General Jackson when the British burned the executive mansion in 1814
E) where Jackson kept his state papers, demonstrating his humility and true "common man" character
Answer:

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Q41

Why was Jackson's view of the 1832 election results suspect?

Multiple Choice
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A) He was accused of having made a deal with his close friend, Martin Van Buren, in exchange for electoral college votes.
B) He didn't win by a very large margin, yet he took the results to mean the nation supported his Native American removal policies.
C) He lost the popular vote but won the electoral college vote, increasing his suspicion that states should not have sovereignty.
D) He beat Adams a second time, assuring himself that the nation supported his financial and foreign policies as they differed greatly from Adams'.
E) He took it to be a mandate to attack the national bank.
Answer:

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Q42

What did resistance within Jackson's own cabinet suggest about his attack on the national bank?

Multiple Choice
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A) The cabinet resistance suggested that Jackson was a tyrant who would brook no competition.
B) The cabinet resistance suggested that withdrawing funds from the national bank and depositing it in state banks was probably unconstitutional.
C) The cabinet resistance suggested that killing the bank was a politically risky act that might damage future Senatorial aspirations.
D) The cabinet resistance shows that Jackson was a charismatic leader who orchestrated his actions with the same precision with which he lead his army.
E) The cabinet resistance demonstrated that Jackson was a weak president with Congress and the Supreme Court despite his popular appeal.
Answer:

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Q43

Why was the Panic of 1837 significant for President Van Buren?

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A) Van Buren had to respond but was hampered by his own party's laissez-faire policies, dooming his reelection.
B) The Whigs blamed Van Buren for the crisis, further strengthening their popular appeal.
C) The Democrats blamed Van Buren for the crisis, further strengthening their popular appeal.
D) Van Buren responded contrary to his political party's laissez-faire policies, forcing the economy into enough of a rebound to win him a second term.
E) His predecessor, Jackson, had caused the crisis, so Van Buren was taxed with fixing it without insinuating the popular president from his own political party.
Answer:

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Q44

What did the Whigs mean by "executive usurpation"?

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A) Jackson had usurped the executive presidential power by abusing the Constitution in the Nullification Crisis and Bank War.
B) Democrats had usurped the executive power by creating a corrupt bargain between President Adams and Henry Clay.
C) Jackson was a weak president, giving in to states that usurped federal prerogatives.
D) The Whigs wanted to usurp Jackson's executive powers by winning back the presidency.
E) They saw Adams as a tyrannical executive who had usurped the democratic powers of the presidency.
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Q45

How did the two-party political system of 1840 differ from the previous system?

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A) In 1840, there was a two-party system, which only allowed for two candidates; in Jefferson's time there were many parties and candidates.
B) In 1840, the two-party system was regionally organized, meaning there were more than two candidates; in Jefferson's time parties were national.
C) In 1840, the two-party system dominated political, social, and economic life; during Jefferson's time, political parties had a much narrower, political impact.
D) In 1840, the two-party system had little impact on people's lives, whereas political parties of Jefferson's time affected politics, social life, and economics.
E) In 1840, there were no real differences between the two parties, so voters had no real choice; before, political parties and candidates had varied greatly.
Answer:

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Q46

To what was French historian Alexis de Tocqueville referring to when he wrote that Americans did not believe "that democratic principles should undermine the husband's authority and make it doubtful who is in charge of the family"?

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A) In France, unlike in the U.S., women experienced true democracy both in and outside of the home.
B) In the U.S., women did not experience true democracy in or outside of their homes.
C) In the U.S., unlike in France, women experienced true democracy both in and outside of the home.
D) Democracy undermines women's rights and safety in the American home.
E) U.S. democracy supports and establishes women's rights in the American home.
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Q47

To what was French historian Alexis de Tocqueville referring when he wrote, "it is possible to foresee that the freer the whites in America are, the more they will seek to isolate themselves"?

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A) The more rights and liberties whites obtain, the less willing they are to share those rights with others such as African or Native Americans.
B) Democracy breeds in people (white Americans especially) an isolationist attitude, causing them to eschew involvement in foreign affairs.
C) As all whites gain rights and liberties despite social or economic status, they will be more willing to share those rights with nonwhites.
D) In order to gain rights and liberties, whites must oppress others, namely African and Native Americans.
E) Because white Americans are isolated from African and Native Americans, they do not see that they do not share the same rights and liberties.
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Q48

Like the earlier Federalist-Jeffersonian Republican split, Whigs and Democrats were divided on

Multiple Choice
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A) Indian education versus Indian removal.
B) unicameral versus bicameral legislatures.
C) alliance with France or Britain.
D) confederation versus a federal union.
E) states' right versus federal power.
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Q49

How does Jackson's interpretation of the "spoils system" compare to that of earlier presidents?

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A) He condemned it in theory and practice.
B) Jackson condemned Jefferson for using the system, but himself continued its use.
C) Jackson had been an outspoken opponent of the practice, but used it when in office.
D) Jackson spoke of the system as democratic in principle.
E) Jackson rejected the system, believing it maintained inherited privilege.
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Q50

How do economic crises today compare to the Panic of 1837?

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A) The Panic of 1837 was caused by Andrew Jackson's laissez-faire policies; today politicians regulate commerce more, avoiding panics and recessions.
B) The Panic of 1837 was caused by international fluctuations; today panics and recessions are usually localized within regions and countries.
C) Like the Panic of 1837, panics and recessions today may be caused by international fluctuations natural to a capitalistic economy.
D) Like the Panic of 1837, panics and recessions today are caused by tight governmental controls on commerce.
E) Like the Panic of 1837, panics and recessions today are the primary cause of presidents losing reelection campaigns.
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