What Is Organizational Behavior?

Organizational Behavior

Business
109
Questions
19
True/False
77
Choices
13
Essay
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Quiz Materials

Imagine that Kristen McKay is a manager at a company specializing in bread and bread-baking paraphernalia. Kristen performs all the normal management functions outlined in your textbook. Answer the following questions based on Henri Fayol's work.


Josef Nobles has been a manager at Mountain Chemicals for five years. Hired for his expertise in project accounting, he rose quickly through the ranks and is now the head of the accounting and finance department. Josef is viewed as the rising star in the organization by his superiors.


You are bringing together faculty from different behavioral disciplines to author a new textbook in organizational behavior. Represented are professors from psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, political science, and industrial engineering.


The manager at a construction site observes that he is spending a great deal of time interviewing prospective employees. This is due to the large amount of absenteeism and turnover among his skilled workers. On questioning exiting employees he discovers that many of them quit because they feel the work place is too dangerous. In particular, several foremen have stated that the need to get the job done quickly is more important than a few rules, and have gone as far as to mock the courage of workers who question this attitude.


Allison and Gail both are studying for a final exam. Both have a goal of attaining a grade of 91 or better. Gail studied 6 hours and made a grade of 92. Allison studied for 9 hours and also made a grade of 92.


Questions

Q1
Free

Which of the following is not a reason why business schools have begun to include classes on organizational behavior?

Multiple Choice
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A) to increase manager effectiveness in organizations
B) to help organizations attract top quality employees
C) to expand organizations' consulting needs
D) to improve retention of quality workers
E) to help increase organizations' profits
Answer:
C) to expand organizations' consulting needs

Explanation:
Understanding human behavior plays an important role in determining a manager's effectiveness. Developing managers' interpersonal skills helps organizations attract and keep high-performing employees. Positive social relationships are associated with lower stress at work and lower turnover. Finally, companies with reputations as good places to work have been found to generate superior financial performance. Expanding a company's consulting needs is not a positive reason to teach organizational behavior.
Q2
Free

Which of the following is most likely to be a belief held by a successful manager?

Multiple Choice
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A) Technical knowledge is all that is needed for success.
B) It is not essential to have sound interpersonal skills.
C) Technical skills are necessary, but insufficient alone for success.
D) Effectiveness is not impacted by human behavior.
E) Technical skills do not influence efficiency.
Answer:
C) Technical skills are necessary, but insufficient alone for success.

Explanation:
Understanding human behavior plays an important role in determining a manager's effectiveness. Developing managers' interpersonal skills helps organizations attract and keep high-performing employees, and create a positive work environment.
Q3
Free

Which of the following would not be considered an organization?

Multiple Choice
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A) a church
B) a university
C) a military unit
D) all adults in a given community
E) an elementary school
Answer:
D) all adults in a given community

Explanation:
An organization is a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. The adults in a community are not representative of an organization.
Q4

Which of the following is least likely to be considered a manager?

Multiple Choice
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A) an administrator in charge of fund-raising activities in a non-profit organization
B) a lieutenant leading an infantry platoon
C) a doctor who acts as head of the physiotherapy department at a public hospital
D) the mayor of a large city
E) an IT technician who enables communication between all of a company's employees
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Q5

Which of the following is not one of the four primary management functions?

Multiple Choice
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A) controlling
B) planning
C) staffing
D) organizing
E) leading
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Q6

Which of a manager's primary functions requires the manager to define an organization's goals, establish an overall strategy for achieving these goals and develop a comprehensive hierarchy of plans to integrate and coordinate activities?

Multiple Choice
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A) controlling
B) planning
C) staffing
D) coordinating
E) leading
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Q7

Designing an organization's structure, such as who reports to whom, defines the ________ function.

Multiple Choice
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A) planning
B) leading
C) controlling
D) organizing
E) contemplating
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Q8

As a manager, one of Joe's duties is to present awards to outstanding employees within his department. Which Mintzberg managerial role is Joe acting in when he does this?

Multiple Choice
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A) leadership role
B) liaison role
C) monitor role
D) figurehead role
E) spokesperson role
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Q9

Which of the following is not an interpersonal role of management according to Mintzberg?

Multiple Choice
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A) a high school principal handing out graduation diplomas
B) a department head relocating the department after a fire
C) a manager interviewing potential employees
D) a shift foreman reprimanding a worker that arrived late
E) a project manager listening to a team presentation
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Q10

According to Mintzberg, when a manager searches the organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change, the manager is acting in which role?

Multiple Choice
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A) negotiator
B) entrepreneur
C) monitor
D) resource allocator
E) reflective analyst
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Q11

Managers need to have three essential skills in order to reach their goals. What are these skills?

Multiple Choice
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A) technical, decisional and interpersonal
B) technical, human, and conceptual
C) interpersonal, informational and decisional
D) conceptual, communication and networking
E) human, informational and communication
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Q12

Jill is valued by her colleagues for her ability to perform effective break-even analysis on upcoming ventures. In this case, her colleagues value her for competencies that fall within which essential management skills categories?

Multiple Choice
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A) technical
B) communication
C) human
D) conceptual
E) education
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Q13

Technical skills encompass the ability to ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) analyze and diagnose complex situations
B) exchange information and control complex situations
C) apply specialized knowledge or expertise
D) initiate and oversee complex projects
E) communicate effectively with others
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Q14

Which one of the following would not be considered a human skill of a manager?

Multiple Choice
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A) decision making.
B) communicating
C) resolving conflicts
D) working as part of a team
E) listening to others
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Q15

Fred Luthans wanted to look at management from a different perspective. He wanted to see what management qualities are needed ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) to produce quality work
B) to attain quality employees
C) to attain high pay
D) to be quickly promoted
E) to show economic returns
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Q16

According to Luthans' research, successful managers, meaning those that were quickly promoted, spent more of their time on ________ than on any other activity.

Multiple Choice
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A) traditional management
B) human resource management
C) networking
D) communicating
E) hiring and firing
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Q17

________ is the study of the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations.

Multiple Choice
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A) Conceptual skills
B) Leadership
C) Human skills
D) Decisional roles
E) Organizational behavior
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Q18

Which of the following is not a topic or concern related to OB?

Multiple Choice
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A) turnover
B) leader behavior
C) productivity
D) management
E) family behavior
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Q19

On which of the following problems would an OB study be least likely to focus ?

Multiple Choice
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A) an increase in absenteeism at a certain company
B) a fall in productivity in one shift of a manufacturing plant
C) a decrease in sales due to growing foreign competition
D) an increase in theft by employees at a retail store
E) excessive turnover in volunteer workers at a non-profit organization
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Q20

What are the three primary behavior determinants of organizational behavior?

Multiple Choice
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A) profit structure, organizational complexity, job satisfaction
B) individuals, profit structure, and job satisfaction
C) individuals, groups, and job satisfaction
D) groups, structure, and profit structure
E) individuals, groups, and structure
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Q21

Which of the following is not a core topic of organizational behavior?

Multiple Choice
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A) motivation
B) attitude development
C) conflict
D) resource allocation
E) work design
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Q22

In order to predict human behavior, it is best to supplement your intuitive opinions with information derived in what fashion?

Multiple Choice
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A) common sense
B) direct observation
C) systematic study
D) speculation
E) organizational theory
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Q23

Janet needs to assign a very important advertising account to one of her writers. First she reviewed each writers work load, then she studied the sales data of the products for the last three campaigns of each writer, then she reviewed each writer's annual review to familiarize herself with their goals. Finally, she gave the account to Paula, a very creative, efficient, writer who has had high sales results with her last three clients' products. Janet's management style is based on ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) intuition or "gut feeling"
B) organizational behavioral studies
C) substantive evidence approach
D) preconceived notions
E) systematic study
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Q24

Basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence is called ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) intuition
B) systematic study
C) organizational behavior
D) evidence-based management
E) conceptual management
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Q25

Analyzing relationships, determining causes and effects, and basing conclusions on scientific evidence all constitute aspects of ________ study.

Multiple Choice
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A) organizational
B) intuitive
C) theoretical
D) systematic
E) case-based
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Q26

What do the authors of the textbook advise?

Multiple Choice
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A) Disregard your intuition because it's usually wrong and will lead to incorrect assumptions .
B) Use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience .
C) Rely on research since it is almost always right and researchers don't make mistakes .
D) Make predictions of individuals' behaviors based on others' actions .
E) Don't trust preconceived notions unless you have substantive evidence to back them up .
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Q27

Organizational behavior is constructed from all of the following disciplines except ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) physics
B) psychology
C) anthropology
D) sociology
E) social psychology
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Q28

Psychology's major contributions to the field of organizational behavior have been primarily at what level of analysis?

Multiple Choice
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A) the level of the group
B) the level of the individual
C) the level of the organization
D) the level of the culture
E) the level of interacting groups
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Q29

The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals is known as ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) psychiatry
B) psychology
C) sociology
D) political science
E) organizational behavior
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Q30

________ blends concepts from psychology and sociology and focuses on the influence people have on one another.

Multiple Choice
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A) Corporate strategy
B) Anthropology
C) Political science
D) Social psychology
E) Archaeology
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Q31

Austin is a graduate student helping to organize a study about individual job satisfaction. The study focuses on the top five reasons that a person is satisfied or dissatisfied in his current job. His department is surveying 200 individuals in 100 different types of organizations. Austin is most likely a graduate student in the department of ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) psychology
B) anthropology
C) political science
D) social psychology
E) archaeology
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Q32

Group behavior, power, and conflict are central areas of study for ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) archaeologists
B) sociologists
C) anthropologists
D) social psychologists
E) operations analysts
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Q33

________ focuses on the study of people in relation to their social environment.

Multiple Choice
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A) Psychology
B) Sociology
C) Corporate strategy
D) Political science
E) Operations management
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Q34

Which field of study has contributed to OB through its research on organizational culture and formal organization theory and structure?

Multiple Choice
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A) psychology
B) operations management
C) corporate strategy
D) political science
E) sociology
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Q35

Which of the following fields has most helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior among people in different countries?

Multiple Choice
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A) anthropology
B) psychology
C) political science
D) operations research
E) psycholinguistics
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Q36

Myriam is analyzing the gender roles of men and women in management in the United States compared to those of management in Japan. She is surveying fifty men and fifty women managers in each country to compare their daily behavior. Myriam's study exemplifies how ________ contributes to OB.

Multiple Choice
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A) anthropology
B) psychology
C) social psychology
D) political science
E) corporate strategy
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Q37

Which of the following statements best describes contingency variables?

Multiple Choice
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A) They are scientific factors based on universal truths.
B) They are factors that moderate the relationship between two or more events or situations.
C) There is general consensus among OB researchers that they can be controlled.
D) They are the cause-effect principles that tend to apply to all situations that have been discovered.
E) They are simple and universal principles that explain organizational behavior.
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Q38

There are ________ simple and universal principles that explain organizational behavior.

Multiple Choice
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A) an infinity of
B) absolutely no
C) a confusing array of
D) fourteen
E) few if any
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Q39

Raymond is completing a study on discrimination in which he has noted that saleswomen who wear skirt suits make more sales than saleswomen who only wear pant suits . However, Raymond determined that his findings only pertained to those industries in which the purchasing decision maker is traditionally masculine. For example, the sales results were the same for all women selling to medical office managers, a female dominated field. Raymond used ________ variables to more accurately explain his results.

Multiple Choice
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A) global
B) general
C) dependent
D) non-reactive
E) contingency
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Q40

Which of the following is not a reason why OB is extremely relevant today?

Multiple Choice
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A) an aging workforce
B) a diverse workforce
C) changing employee practices
D) globalization
E) global warming
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Q41

________ is an effect of increasing globalization.

Multiple Choice
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A) More expensive consumer goods
B) An increase in manufacturing jobs in developed nations
C) An ever increasingly homogeneous workforce
D) Shared economic values among all cultures
E) Jobs moving to nations with low-cost labor
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Q42

________ is a measure of how organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity.

Multiple Choice
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A) Globalization
B) Workforce diversity
C) Affirmative action
D) Organizational culture
E) Operational homogeneity
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Q43

Which of the following statements is not true about workforce diversity?

Multiple Choice
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A) Workforce diversity is a global concern.
B) Managing workforce diversity presents many challenges.
C) Workforce diversity focuses on differences within a country.
D) Sexual orientation is a part of workforce diversity.
E) Workforce diversity is a concern only in the U.S.
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Q44

What was the most significant change in the U.S. labor force during the last half of the twentieth century?

Multiple Choice
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A) substantial decreases in the number of workers who are under 55
B) increases in the percentage of U.S. citizens of Hispanic origin
C) increasing numbers of African-Americans at all levels within the workforce
D) the steady increase in the percentage of workers that are men
E) the rapid increase in the percentage of workers that are women
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Q45

Which of the following statements is not an implication of increased workplace diversity?

Multiple Choice
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A) Managers should recognize differences between workers.
B) Diversity training should be provided.
C) Employee benefits should be revamped to accommodate the different needs of different employees.
D) It is critical that all workers be treated alike.
E) Innovation and creativity in organizations is likely to increase.
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Q46

Eighty percent of the U.S. workforce today is made up of ________ jobs.

Multiple Choice
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A) textile
B) technology
C) automobile
D) restaurant
E) service
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Q47

Approximately ________ % of the U.S. labor force is employed in service industries.

Multiple Choice
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A) 10
B) 25
C) 40
D) 60
E) 80
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Q48

Service industry jobs include all of the following except ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) fast good counter worker
B) sales clerk
C) waiter
D) nurse
E) production line worker
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Q49

Which of the following factors makes it imperative that organizations be fast and flexible?

Multiple Choice
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A) temporariness
B) corporate excess
C) truncated capacity
D) advances in corporate strategy
E) globalization
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Q50

Given the climate of "temporariness" in modern organizations, employees must ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) continually update their knowledge and skills
B) be prepared to stay in the same position for longer periods of time
C) make closer connections to their peers
D) foster friendship within the work environment
E) limit their mobility if they hope to compete
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Q51

Which of the following is the major challenge to managers in a fully networked organization?

Multiple Choice
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A) eliminating the need for paper communication by relying entirely on e-mail, file transfers and the like
B) retaining team members who can easily move to another employer when demand for their services changes
C) managing contract and temporary workers
D) maintaining a "virtual office" through the use of computers, interoffice networks and the Internet
E) managing people who work together but are geographically separated
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Q52

________ allow(s) people to communicate and work together even though they may be thousands of miles apart.

Multiple Choice
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A) Flexible cubicles
B) Stratified work environments
C) Cyber-empowerment machines
D) Widespread use of computers
E) Networked organizations
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Q53

Which of the following has not contributed to blurring the lines between employees' work life and personal life?

Multiple Choice
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A) the creation of global organizations
B) communications technology allowing employees to work any time and from any place
C) organizations asking employees to put in longer hours
D) creation of flexible teams
E) the increase in dual career households
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Q54

What growth area in OB research concerns how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential?

Multiple Choice
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A) positive organizational scholarship
B) ethical behavioral research
C) balancing work-life conflict
D) networked organizational research
E) temporariness studies
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Q55

Situations where an individual is required to define right and wrong conduct are termed ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) diversity issues
B) human resource problems
C) ethical dilemmas
D) loyalty situations
E) social puzzles
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Q56

A model is a(n) ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) abstraction of reality
B) someone held in high esteem
C) independent variable
D) real-world scenario
E) dependent variable
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Q57

Which of the following has only recently been considered a primary dependent variable in organizational behavior?

Multiple Choice
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A) productivity
B) absenteeism
C) turnover
D) job satisfaction
E) organizational citizenship behavior
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Q58

At its root, productivity involves concern for both ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) dependence and independence
B) diversity and homogeneity
C) motivation and distraction
D) absenteeism and motivation
E) effectiveness and efficiency
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Q59

Which of the following is an example of being an efficient company?

Multiple Choice
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A) operating at the lowest possible cost while yielding a higher output
B) creating the highest customer satisfaction ratings
C) meeting the production schedule
D) obtaining the highest market share
E) maximizing diversity at high cost
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Q60

What term is used to describe voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization?

Multiple Choice
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A) absenteeism
B) turnover
C) downsizing
D) truancy
E) social atrophy
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Q61

________ is discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirement, but that promotes the effective functioning of the organization.

Multiple Choice
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A) Productivity
B) Motivation
C) Organizational citizenship
D) Organizational behavior
E) Corporate strategy
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Q62

Individual-level independent variables include all of the following except ________.

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A) leadership
B) learning
C) perception
D) motivation
E) decision-making
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Q63

The six key dependent variables relevant to OB on the contingency model to help explain the complexities of organizational behavior are ________.

Multiple Choice
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A) productivity, absence, turnover, deviant workplace behavior, citizenship, and satisfaction
B) human resources, turnover, structure, culture, leadership, and trust
C) decision making, stress, citizenship, conflict, teams, and politics
D) biography, personality, emotions, perception, motivation, and ability
E) input, values, emotions, perception, attitude, and decision-making
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Q64

Although managers must be technically competent, technical knowledge is often not enough for success.

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A) True.
B) False.
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Q65

Managers get things done through other people.

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A) True.
B) False.
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Q66

Modern theorists have condensed Fayol's five management functions down to four: planning, organizing, commanding, and controlling.

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B) False.
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Q67

Monitoring, comparing, and correcting activities are all included in the controlling function.

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A) True.
B) False.
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Q68

When managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization's performance, they are acting in the capacity of an entrepreneur, which is an example of an informational role.

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A) True.
B) False.
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Q69

Research conducted by Luthans supports the belief that promotions are based on performance.

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B) False.
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Q70

Many people's views on human behavior are based on intuition.

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B) False.
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Q71

Conflict and power have been major topics of concern to social psychologists.

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B) False.
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Q72

Anthropology has helped us understand differences in values and attitudes between people in different countries.

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B) False.
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Q73

OB researchers cannot offer reasonably accurate explanations of human behavior since people act very differently in similar situations.

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B) False.
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Q74

Workforce diversity is a topic dealing with how organizations are becoming more homogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity.

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B) False.
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Q75

Forty percent of the U.S. labor force is female.

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B) False.
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Q76

Today's managers and employees must learn to cope with temporariness; learning to live with flexibility, spontaneity, and unpredictability.

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B) False.
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Q77

There's an increasing blurring between the work and nonwork time.

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B) False.
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Q78

Organizational behavior models generally assume job satisfaction to be an independent variable.

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B) False.
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Q79

An organization that is productive must be both effective and efficient.

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B) False.
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Q80

An organization is productive if it achieves its goals and does so by transferring inputs to outputs at the lowest cost.

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B) False.
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Q81

Reasonable levels of employee-initiated turnover facilitate organizational flexibility and employee independence.

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B) False.
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Q82

The difference between the amount of rewards workers receive and the amount they believe they should receive is termed job satisfaction.

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B) False.
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Q83

When Ms. McKay determines which employees will do what tasks, she is performing the ________ function of management.

Multiple Choice
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A) planning
B) organizing
C) leading
D) controlling
E) reacting
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Q84

When Ms. McKay motivates her employees and attempts to resolve conflicts among department members, she is performing the ________ function of management.

Multiple Choice
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A) planning
B) organizing
C) leading
D) controlling
E) reacting
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Q85

When Ms. McKay compares projected sales to actual sales in her department, she is performing the ________ function of management.

Multiple Choice
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A) planning
B) organizing
C) leading
D) controlling
E) reacting
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Q86

According to Katz, the skills that Mr. Nobles was hired for were what type of skill?

Multiple Choice
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A) human
B) conceptual
C) technical
D) controlling
E) directing
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Q87

Given the information we have, Mr. Nobles would probably be categorized by Luthans as what type of manager?

Multiple Choice
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A) effective
B) efficient
C) successful
D) productive
E) type A
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Q88

The faculty member from ________ should furnish information about personality, learning, and motivation.

Multiple Choice
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A) sociology
B) psychology
C) anthropology
D) political science
E) industrial engineering
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Q89

Which professor out of this group would you expect to address issues of communication?

Multiple Choice
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A) the psychologist
B) the anthropologist
C) the political scientist
D) the social psychologist
E) the industrial engineer
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Q90

You should expect that the faculty member from ________ will probably contribute information about large-scale group behavior.

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A) sociology
B) psychology
C) social psychology
D) anthropology
E) industrial engineering
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Q91

What is not a dependent variable that the manager wishes to resolve in this case?

Multiple Choice
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A) turnover
B) absenteeism
C) productivity
D) job satisfaction
E) the skill level of his workers
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Q92

What is the best way for the manager to control the deviant behavior of the foremen?

Multiple Choice
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A) ordering the foremen to conform with the required safety standards
B) finding out why the foremen place a greater importance on finishing the job than in safety
C) firing the foremen and promoting new foremen from the current pool of workers
D) taking over the work of the foremen himself
E) instituting training classes for the foremen on the importance of safety
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Q93

Which of the following is an independent variable which is likely to be the root cause of the workplace deviant behavior the manager has observed?

Multiple Choice
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A) Foremen are paid significant bonuses if the workers they supervise complete their tasks quickly.
B) Absenteeism is found to rise on those days when particularly hazardous work is being performed.
C) Several of the foremen are close personal friends who have very similar attitudes toward work and safety.
D) The structure of the organization does not involve all workers in the decision making process.
E) Penalties for ignoring safety standards are not heavy, amounting to the equivalent of only several hours' pay.
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Q94

Which of the students was effective?

Multiple Choice
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A) only Gail
B) only Allison
C) neither Gail nor Allison
D) both Gail and Allison
E) insufficient information to judge
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Q95

Which of the following statements is true?

Multiple Choice
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A) Gail is more efficient than Allison.
B) Allison is more efficient than Gail.
C) Gail is more effective than Allison.
D) Allison is more effective than Gail.
E) Gail and Allison are equally efficient.
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Q96

Which of the students was more productive?

Multiple Choice
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A) Gail
B) Allison
C) Neither Gail nor Allison were productive.
D) It is impossible to tell from the information given.
E) They were equally productive.
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Q97

Define and provide a workplace example for each of the four management functions described by Henri Fayol.

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Q98

Describe the three essential management skills that differentiate effective managers from ineffective ones. Provide a workplace example of how these skills could be used when dealing with the challenge of a workplace recession.

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Q99

Explain how Fred Luthans differentiates between successful and effective managers.

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Describe how one of the sciences that contributes to organizational behavior could be used in EBM. Define the science, some of the science's contributions to OB, and describe a workplace example of how it could be used in EBM.

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Why is it important to complement intuition with systematic study in our attempts to understand behavior within organizations?

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How have the fields of psychology and sociology contributed to our understanding of organizational behavior?

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Compare and contrast the fields of psychology, social psychology, and sociology.

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Describe how globalization affects a manager's people skills, and what human skills will be called upon to be effective.

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Explain "workforce diversity." Explain what key managerial skill you think is most important when dealing with workforce diversity.

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What dependent and independent variables are usually identified for construction of an OB model?

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Describe two contingency variables that a manager could use in evaluating job satisfaction in her organization.

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How would you compare an ethical dilemma to organizational citizenship behavior? How are they similar or different?

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What conclusions can you draw about turnover if an employer strives to find balance in work-life conflicts? How can the employer find this balance and still have productive employees?

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